Basic memorization techniques

It is quite possible to quickly and reliably capture educational and literary texts, lectures, names, faces, phone numbers, foreign words in memory. To this end, various techniques are used.

Basic tricks

One way to master the art of memorization is to learn special techniques. They help a person to properly manage the storage in the brain structures of any data coming from outside.

Effective memorization is based on vivid impressions, the desire to intentionally clearly remember an event, establishing a connection between new material and existing experience, skills in timely concentration of attention, awareness of memorized information and understanding where they will be used.

The method of pictograms is aimed at teaching mediated memorization, which recommends turning words into drawings for the purpose of effective recall.

Checking your own photographic memory is possible using the Aivazovsky method. The great artist, if necessary, could transfer the landscape that remained in his memory to the canvas. The subject devotes several minutes to the study of some object, then closes his eyes and tries to reproduce it mentally.

Often, to keep a large amount of information in their heads, people resort to cramming, but mechanical methods of memorization are tedious and ineffective. For successful assimilation of words, experts recommend the following techniques:

  • rational techniques involve the use of logical thinking;
  • eidetics is based on keeping interesting images in memory;
  • the main mnemonic methods are based on artificial methods of effective memorization of information.

Mnemonics is aimed at the development of figurative thinking, the creation of supporting associative series and increased concentration of attention. It is used to capture difficult information. There are many interesting effective memorization methods.


Most of the mnemonic techniques are like children’s games. All incoming information is encrypted. Then follow the process of memorization and repetition. The lexical base of any foreign language can be mastered in 2 weeks. Techniques are based on creating chains of individual associations associated with vivid images and certain emotions.

The sound of a foreign word is superimposed on a familiar concept. The English word «wall» (wall) is consonant with the Russian «ox», so you need to imagine a huge ox running fast and resting its mighty horns against the wall. One can even imagine the violent crack of a collapsing wall.


Facts are easy to remember through conditional abbreviation of phrases, the initial letters of the words of which are a code for deciphering the data needed for memorization. Astronomers, by the initial letters of the words of certain phrases, easily learn the names of the planets of the solar system. From an early age, in order to reproduce the entire chain of rainbow colors in strict sequence, people memorize the expression «Every hunter wants to know where the pheasant is sitting.»


This approach assumes application of certain principles or rules. In the process of memorizing a text, some resort to to the arrangement of information in alphabetical order, others distribute by color, size, age or purpose.

Associative Method

For more effective memorization, when creating associative series, it is advisable to use the following mnemonic techniques: hyperbolization, animation, modification and emphasis.

  • hyperbole implies deliberate exaggeration of images. A small object must be given a gigantic appearance in the imagination. It should appear in thoughts much larger than it is in the real world. For example, imagine a huge fly. Maybe it will have the parameters of an eagle or even an airplane.
  • revival object involves giving it movement. A table moving independently around the room will be remembered for a long time.
  • Modification occurs when the concept is transformed, but without violating the meaning of the word itself. For example, a motorcycle can be equipped with a propeller in the imagination.
  • accentuation is based on the mental enhancement of the image by highlighting an important detail. You can use a cartoon or cartoon. Sometimes a memorable image is given light or sound. For example, while memorizing the words «scarf» imagine it buzzing and glowing from the inside.

You can use the «chain» technique and connect words that are not logically related to each other. For example, they create a chain of images to remember a shopping list.

The funnier and more absurd the story gets, the better it stays in your head.

Giordano memory system

For long-term storage in memory of various numbers, phone numbers, addresses, exact dates, toponymic names, surnames, names, patronymics, the Giordano system is recognized as one of the most effective techniques. The main stages include encoding the details of the memorized material into visual images, the process of sequential memorization of information and its consolidation in memory.

Encoding into a visual image is not memorization itself. This is just preparation for it. For example, you urgently need to fix the phone number 8-914-240-53-03 in your memory. It can be encoded like this. The figure eight is an hourglass, which reflects an episode associated with the outbreak of the First World War.

The next 3 numbers are remembered, visually representing a hedgehog with two needles sticking out in different directions, one of which is attached to a tea bag, since the number «4» is similar to the letter «H». On the other needle, an egg is visible, because it is shaped like a zero.

Sweat drips down the hedgehog. The first letter of the word encodes a five, and the last letter encodes a three. An ambulance with «03» written brightly on it takes away a sick hedgehog.

First, the basis of the future association is isolated. It is necessary to create 3 parts of its individual links, and then present it in its entirety. It usually takes 5-6 seconds to form one bond. It is necessary to remember all the connections formed between the elements of information created in the imagination.

Remembering the sequence of associations occurs in 2 ways. The first involves the creation of an associative series from the required number of stimulating images. The second method involves the formation of an information block using directly interconnected associations. Fixing the necessary material is carried out through its conscious study in the imagination.

Information is fixed when using the reception of active repetition. Mentally reproduce in memory all the events associated with memorizing a phone number.

The laws of memory in psychology

The law of vivid impressions affects memorization. Memory always reacts to strong impressions, so bright events are remembered quickly and easily. You can easily recall any very interesting episode that happened a long time ago. For a long time, a person who stood out with extravagant clothes or extraordinary behavior remains in the memory. If you need to memorize some information, you need to give it brightness and unusualness.

The law of significance of information distributes information according to their need. Everything that is necessary for survival, satisfaction of needs, does not cause any problems with memorization. Individual attachments, life values, hobbies, personal emotions and feelings are remembered without much effort.

The law of motivation operates in the presence of a motivating force, a great desire to master the material. An upcoming award in a contest or competition provides a strong motivation to learn a lot of different facts and information. It has been noticed that it is difficult for students to master precisely those subjects that they think will not be useful to them in life.

The law of activity presupposes to perform some action before strengthening the information in the memory. It can be calculations, comparisons, isolating the main ideas. You can artificially get involved in the work on information, work with it. Any actions taken improve the learning process.

Studying the settings and settings before starting to master any material is mandatory. For the rational use of memory resources, one must prepare for its perception. It is recommended to skim through all the information to be studied.

The law of prior knowledge presupposes reliance on accumulated experience. Connecting with familiar material makes it easier to learn new information. It is necessary to draw parallels, analyze and systematize the facts.

The law of mutual influence of traces of memory provides for the organization of work on memorization with alternating thought processes and short pauses, during which the data are fixed in the brain structures.

Other techniques

Many techniques can improve the efficiency of mastering educational material. It is important to analyze the effectiveness of each technique used and subsequently use the most appropriate memorization techniques.

For quick recall of prepared speech, use edge effectwhich helps to reproduce the beginning and end of a long phrase. Location Method involves linking to objects that are encountered daily on the way to study or work, necessary for memorizing a concept. You can lay the route in your apartment or room.

The OVOD method includes 4 main stages of memorizing the material: highlighting the main idea, careful reading, review and refinement. First, a meaningful reading of the necessary data is supposed, accompanied by a search for the main idea, which is written down on a piece of paper. At the next stage, they carefully read the whole speech again, fixing their attention on the smallest details and details that need to be tied to the main thoughts of the text.

This is followed by a review of the entire speech and drawing up an approximate plan in order to clarify the sequence of necessary facts. Fine-tuning involves repeating the text from memory. First, the main points are reproduced, then the details are mentally restored. After that, it is recommended to read the plan again and note the missing data.

Some experts offer rational methods for studying foreign vocabulary or difficult terms in a dream. The technology of the technique involves the use of the first hour after falling asleep and the last half hour before waking up. First, they read the words and listen to them in the audio recording, then the vocabulary is loudly repeated after the announcer, accompanied by soothing music. After 15 minutes, the student should go to bed. In the audio recording, the words are repeated three times, first in a loud voice, then it becomes quieter and quieter. In the morning, the vocabulary is read again with a growing sound.

golden list method provides for two-week intervals and repetition of entries. First, a bronze list of 25 words is prepared, recorded in a notebook. After 2 weeks, the learned words are excluded from the list, 17 words are written down and forgotten about again. The 3rd list will already include 12 words, the 4th time will write about 8 words. The golden list is formed by rewriting forgotten words from the silver list. Work is carried out according to the same scheme.

There are special techniques designed to capture faces, names, patronymics and surnames in the head. The best of them solve the problem of linking a person to a name, profession, hobbies, habits by building associative links. You can create an image based on typical associations associated with literary or fairy-tale characters.

Sometimes they turn to the etymological meaning of the name and the figurative representation occurs on its basis. With the help of mnemonics, portraits of scientists, philosophers, and writers are easily memorized.


Schoolchildren and students are encouraged to use all the available thinking potential. It is advisable not to use cheat sheets and use the Internet as little as possible to find the necessary educational material. We must strive to recreate the necessary information on our own, relying on our own memory.

Any new information should be retold in your own words, while it is desirable to connect it with previously acquired knowledge, draw parallels between them and associate with events from personal experience.

To comprehend voluminous information, it is advised alternation technique. At first, they partially complete tasks in one subject, then they switch to another discipline, returning in turn to the previous material.

In order to avoid a chaotic piling up of events, all facts and information should be clearly structured.

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