Everything you need to know about a career

Often in his career, a person tries to take a conscious position of striving for career growth. This is often followed by a change in position, salary and professional development. Depending on the goals and attitudes, each person can build his career.

What it is?

Successful advancement in official, political, social, scientific and other activities is called a career. The Small Academic Dictionary, published at the beginning of the 20th century, contains the following definition: career means rapid success in the service and other fields.

Currently, the concept is a more extended interpretation. This word can refer to a general occupation, for example, “medical career” or “teaching career”. The synonymous phrase «social lift» indicates the achievement of fame, popularity, profit. A career also resembles a ladder, the steps of which climb to the very top.

Many people strive to realize their desires and goals, focused on professional activities. A careerist is a courageous, determined, ambitious and responsible person. A successful career helps to improve his position in society. Professional promotion includes the development of an employee as a qualified specialist in his industry throughout his career. It can develop in two directions:

  • deepening into one specialization chosen at the initial stage of the professional path;
  • parallel mastery of different areas of activity.

Some dream of being the head of a department or firm. Appointment to a leadership position opens up new opportunities for a person. Along with the increased level of responsibility, the employee can now influence the development of his organization, perform new creative tasks. He acquires a different status in society and financial benefits, thereby improving his own condition and the lives of loved ones.

A labor career is a more multifaceted concept compared to business career growth or vocational promotion. This means that these career paths are subspecies of a working career. A business career is inextricably linked to achieving success in commerce, business and other areas that bring profit, income and various personal benefits.

The unscrupulous pursuit of personal success in various fields of activity is called careerism. The word often has a negative connotation, because some people who want to improve their position in a professional or other field, neglect the norms of morality and ethics. On the way to their goal, they do not take into account the feelings and interests of others, family ties.

People say about such a person: «Goes over the heads (over the corpses).» In this case, the careerist turns into a callous and unpredictable person, capable of unseemly acts for the sake of a high position in society, good wages or other financial rewards.

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There are different types of career advancement. There are stable, linear, spiral and changeable types of career. The characteristics of these types are as follows:

  • a sustainable career implies a lifetime employment of the subject in one field of activity;
  • a linear career means a gradual career growth in the labor field;
  • the spiral type involves a change of professions and areas of activity of similar competencies;
  • the changeable variety is characterized by a change of professions that are not related to each other.

From a psychological point of view, a career can have the following types:

  • situational career growth does not depend on the employee himself, it occurs suddenly due to some circumstances that change the course of work;
  • management actively promotes the subordinate, regardless of his opinion;
  • the development of the company contributes to the professional growth of the employee;
  • a person personally builds his career through active and successful work;
  • the employee gets promoted, overcoming any obstacles and sweeping away everything in his path in order to achieve the desired goal.

Political career is available to deputies and political scientists, public — to various public figures, journalists. Young professionals have great prospects for achieving career heights in the field of economic and regional policy.

A professional career implies the growth of knowledge, skills and abilities in official activities. A person can move up the career ladder within their profession or organization. Depending on the trajectory of his movement, the following types of career are distinguished.

  • Intraorganizational. A subject within his organization can have horizontal growth in different departments of the same hierarchy level: change of service role in an existing position with the expansion and complication of functional responsibilities. All this is accompanied by an increase in wages. The vertical level of a career is associated with promotion: the rise to the next structural level with an increase in wages. In addition to an upward career, there is a downward model — moving an employee down the career ladder. Anti-career is most often associated with the desire to reduce the level of responsibility or free up time for your family. Centripetal career involves the gradual approach of the employee to the authorities of the company.
  • Interorganizational. An employee can go through all the stages of career growth in different institutions. First, a person receives an education, then gets a job. The workplace may change from time to time. Moving up the career ladder is inevitably followed by termination of employment due to the onset of retirement age, and for some, due to disability. A specialized career is a work path of a specialist within the same profession in different companies. A non-specialized career involves going through the stages of a production path in the role of an employee of various professional areas. At the same time, institutions sometimes change, and sometimes the employee works at the same enterprise.
  • Stepped. This type of career is built on the principle of alternate movement in the vertical and horizontal planes. It implies a sequential transition from one position to another. Each subsequent position is based on the previous position with the expansion of powers, increased responsibility and the acquisition of new skills and abilities. Sometimes there is a combination or alternation of intra-organizational and inter-organizational careers.
  • Hidden. The centripetal (hidden) variety involves moving to the central core of the company’s management, strengthening its position in the administration and participating in important decisions. This type of career is available to a narrow circle of employees. Most often, these employees have good business connections outside their organization. The management invites the subordinate to open and informal meetings. The employee receives additional remuneration for the performance of important assignments.


There are various career development strategies. They are based on a combination of life principles and values ​​with the goals pursued by the employee during his career growth. Trajectories of movement are subject to certain models.

  • «Stairs». Often a qualified employee, using their creative abilities and work experience, moves up the career ladder. He gives all his strength to work and after a certain time receives a new position. She is usually appointed after the next improvement and advanced training. Thus, a person gradually builds a vertical career with a clearly defined period of being on each step. After reaching certain heights, a slow descent along the service steps occurs due to a gradual decrease in the available potential. The employee is forced to perform moderate work without unnecessary stress. It is especially difficult to part with the position of chief. Finding yourself in the shadows after leaving a leadership position is difficult. To support such people, it is recommended to include them on the board of directors and offer the role of a consultant.
  • «Springboard». Often an employee smoothly reaches the desired heights of a vertical career, takes a good high-paying position and strives to stay in it for a long time. This is followed by a kind of jump from the springboard — access to a well-deserved rest. Most often, this career option is typical for certain types of managers or ordinary employees who do not seek promotion through the ranks. The employee is satisfied with the position he holds, and he wants to stay in it until retirement.
  • «Snake». Such career growth involves the movement of an employee from one workplace to another to study activities in this area. A person is engaged in some type of work for a short time, then is promoted to a higher position. Moving from one place of work to another, the employee acquires valuable professional experience. Subsequently, he turns out to be an excellent leader. Such a model of career growth in the horizontal plane is contraindicated for melancholic and phlegmatic people, because they painfully perceive any rotation. This scheme of movement is widespread in Japan. Thanks to the acquired personal experience, the Japanese leader has a holistic view of the company.
  • «Crossroads». Many modern enterprises operate according to the American scheme of vertical and horizontal personnel movements. An employee is promoted based on the results of certification obtained in the course of a comprehensive assessment of personnel. The business and personal qualities of the employee are taken into account.

This model is often used by joint corporations.

Main steps

The preliminary period on average lasts up to 25-28 years. It includes the choice of a field of activity and preparation for the labor process. At this time, a person receives secondary and higher education. A young specialist can start his professional path by finding the right direction. Sometimes he has to change several positions. When the subject finds a suitable place, then he begins to assert himself as a person. At the same time, he monitors the security of existence and takes care of social recognition.

The formative stage most often lasts from 25 to 30 years. During this time, there is a development of official duties, the formation and improvement of qualifications, the development of professional skills, career building. The employee seeks independence. People are very concerned about health and safety issues. Many at this stage create families. Planning and having children increase the employee’s need for higher wages.

The next period is associated with promotion up the career ladder. It lasts from 30 to 45 years. During this time, there is a significant increase in qualifications, the accumulation of practical skills, experience, and craftsmanship. The person is less focused on safety. He strives for self-improvement, gaining some weight in society, achieving success and a higher status. At this stage, rapidly changing career paths may overlap. The employee dreams of increasing wages and is interested in additional sources of income. The self-expression of the individual is noted.

The stage of conservation is associated with the consolidation of the results achieved, the strengthening of the existing situation. The period is observed for approximately 15 years: from 45 to 60 years. The employee is at the peak of self-expression and independence. He feels a creative take-off, so the need for respect and transfer of his knowledge to other people increases. It’s still possible to get promoted. A person still makes certain efforts to increase his earnings.

During the completion phase, which lasts an average of 60 to 65 years, the subject begins to experience physiological and psychological discomfort. The employee sincerely dreams of maintaining the level of wages, looking for additional sources of income, hoping to receive a solid supplement to the pension benefit. While waiting for a well-deserved rest, the employee looks for a replacement and trains applicants for his position.

The retirement stage is characterized by the end of a career. The pensioner is looking for an opportunity for self-expression in other activities. Much attention is paid to health. In order to maintain financial condition, some agree to perform temporary or seasonal work in their own institution.

Other pensioners turn their hobbies into a source of income.

What does it take to make a career?

Only an interested person can build a successful career. Education plays a big role. Language training is often of great importance for moving up the career ladder. Good knowledge of foreign languages ​​allows you to move far in a large corporation. Unsteadiness, the desire to obtain exclusively material benefits, various fears prevent people from climbing to the top of success.

A purposeful person focuses on self-development. Try to acquire the maximum number of skills: study various programs and text editors, attend a wide variety of courses. Any certificate can be useful in building a career. Thanks to him, you can move up to the appointment to a leadership position. Keep in mind that the head of the department or the head of the sector must have at least 3-5 years of work experience.

Psychologists give some recommendations for building your career from scratch. First of all, a novice careerist needs to choose a suitable profession. Then you need to define a specific goal and develop a personal career plan, which is a kind of personal navigator for a person who wants to build his career. The plan should describe long-term and short-term goals, ways to achieve them. It is necessary to regularly monitor the implementation of all tasks.

You can take as a basis the rules of some outstanding personality who managed to achieve unprecedented success at work. Planning begins with comparing your desires with the possibilities for achieving the desired career heights.

  • Analyze your current professional status. Assess your knowledge, skills, education, experience. Are they enough for a successful career? In what area can you realize your potential? Consider whether age, gender, and marital status matter in your situation.
  • Determine personal preferences and career expectations. Find a professional area in which you want to realize yourself. What position are you interested in?
  • Conduct an analysis of supply and demand in the labor market. Study the requirements of potential employers for applicants, the number of offers, the proposed salary. Make a list of available positions and professions. Evaluate the experience and skill level of competitors.
  • Determine the positions you want. Analyze opportunities for corporate training and other types of professional development.
  • Settle on a realistic plan, think through all the details and factors that can be influenced. Take a critical approach to assessing your professional status and the timing of its development.

There is a special technique of Edgar Shane «Career Anchors», aimed at identifying value orientations at the time of career advancement. With the help of this diagnostics, social attitudes, motivation for activity, interests that are characteristic of a particular person are determined.

The test allows you to identify professional competence, stability, entrepreneurial ability and other career orientations.

Self-discipline is essential to a person’s promotion. It allows you to adequately assess the upcoming tasks, distribute your strengths and capabilities. A person will need such qualities as purposefulness, responsibility and diligence. In addition, it is important to adhere to the following tips:

  • find yourself a wise mentor;
  • strictly follow the instructions that exist in the company;
  • perform your work conscientiously and efficiently;
  • start the working day a little earlier than other colleagues, and finish a little later;
  • do not support rumors about the wrong methods of management, do not spread gossip;
  • be attentive to people, be careful in statements;
  • try to tell the truth;
  • approach responsibly to the implementation of any tasks;
  • do not avoid any assignments, take the initiative;
  • bring things to the end, work for the result;
  • do not shift the execution of your tasks and decision-making to others;
  • avoid illegal activities;
  • do not limit yourself to the scope of job responsibilities;
  • treat work as if it were your own business;
  • promise less and deliver more;
  • play sports, take walks in the fresh air, get enough sleep, eat right;
  • always dress neatly, smile more often;
  • do not miss the opportunity to constantly grow professionally;
  • constantly improve, improve your skills.

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