Long-term memory: what is it and how to develop it?

In the absence of long-term memory, information would not linger in the structure of the human brain and would disappear without a trace each time. In this case, it is impossible to form the skills necessary for life.

What it is?

The definition of the term long-term memory (LTM) is fixed in many dictionaries. In neurophysiology, attention is focused on the ability of all living organisms with a central nervous system to learn and memorize material.

Knowledge is stored in memory for a long time without quantitative and qualitative losses due to neural connections due to complex biochemical processes in the body.

In psychology, this level of memory is considered the highest mental function, which makes it possible to accumulate, retain, preserve and reproduce a huge amount of knowledge and skillsacquired over a long period of time.

The structure of memory consists of sensory, short-term and long-term levels. These types differ in the mechanisms by which the material is remembered, the volume and duration of information storage. The characteristic of the three-component model of coordinated blocks is reduced to the initially involved sensory register with information storage for 1 second, sending the material to short-term storage for 20-30 seconds and placing knowledge in the archive for a long time.


Long-term memory is based on 3 processes: encoding, archiving and knowledge extraction. The work of memory begins with memorization, then archiving and actualization take place, that is, information is retrieved from memory by reproduction. The volume of fiberboard and the duration of storage are unlimited. It all depends on the method of coding, systematization of the material and the subject who perceives and remembers information.

The placement of perceived material in the storage of brain structures is influenced by 2 factors: activity and meaningfulness. Activity consists in a strong connection of knowledge with certain emotions, the emergence of a conscious goal and the motivation to include information memorization in the process of activity.

Indicators of meaningfulness are control in the process of memorization, analysis and structuring of the necessary knowledge, search and selection of important thoughts, establishment of logical connections between parts of the text, repeated repetition.

Long-term memory retains the perceived material firmly. She represents a kind of repository of knowledge in the brain structures. It can be called a reliable archive in which all information is divided into many headings and sorted.


The warehouse with accumulated material has an unlimited capacity.

The presence of memory testifies to the personal integrity of a person. Loss of memory leads to the disintegration of personality. Violation occurs due to the inability to correctly encode and reproduce information.

In addition, memory may be impaired due to amnesia. In the first case, regular training helps. Forecasts in the second situation are impossible to predict. Amnesia can be caused by stress or trauma.

The reasons for the violation of long-term memory can be physiological features: asthenia, damage to the central nervous system and brain, condition after a stroke, intellectual disability, alcohol or drug intoxication. The cause of mental disorders are psychological trauma, depression, neurosis, overwork, chronically bad mood, strong emotional and mental stress.

Domestic causes are usually associated with poor nutrition, lack of sleep, excessive intellectual and physical exertion, lack of regimen and improper planning of the day.

The following symptoms indicate a violation of the DVP:

  • difficulties with conscious memorization of verses, dates, examination material;
  • confusion, violation of causal relationships;
  • decrease in the level of working capacity and mental capabilities;
  • inability to concentrate and concentrate, inattention;
  • memory losses;
  • social maladaptation;
  • forgetfulness in everyday situations;
  • distraction and confusion.


Long-term memory contributes to improving the quality of human life, achieving success in various fields.


A bit of history


The idea of ​​distinguishing between short-term and long-term retention of information in memory appeared in the 19th century. The very mechanism for transferring information from a short-term storage to a long-term archive was described in the middle of the 20th century and is still a subject of controversy among researchers.

In 2011, an interesting discovery was made. Scientists at one of the US medical centers managed to recreate the entire neural circuit, which is the basis of the DVP. It turns out that with the duration of the incoming signal for 10 minutes, strong compounds are formed that do not disintegrate for a long time and can remain in the structures of the brain throughout a person’s life.

Comparison with short-term memory

All memory components function in concert. Knowledge for long-term storage comes from the information capacity held by short-term memory (STM). Two-stage memorization has a certain biological meaning. Random and unnecessary information is sifted out and not transferred to storage in the fiberboard.

Irrelevant information does not overload the brain. The perceived material is emotionally experienced, reconstructed and placed in the storage of brain structures for a long time.

When comparing two types of memory, there are differences in the duration of storage of the material, the strength of its retention and information capacity. Information is stored in the KVP for 20-30 seconds, after which some of the material is lost forever, and the other part of the successfully encoded information ends up in the DVP archive, where it is stored from several minutes to many years. KVP encodes information visually or acoustically, DVP — at the semantic level.


The mechanism for storing information in CEP is attention, in DVP — pronunciation. The structure of the KVP is characterized by the absence of associations, the DWP is characterized by associativity. Errors in the reproduction of information in the first type of memory arise due to its displacement and rapid attenuation. The causes of erroneous recall in long-term memory may be organic disturbances, inadequate instructions, and interference.


Varieties


All types of fiberboards are closely related to each other. An autobiographical view can store an event in one’s own life for a long time.. In some cases, this type is correlated with episodic memory, when a separate fragment is fixed and sent to the brain archive for a long time. The reproductive view makes it possible to recall and reproduce a previously saved object.

Associative memory is based on functional links between memorized objects.

The set of hereditary reactions that are passed from generation to generation through genes to biological, generic, genetic memory. Genetic memory is designed to store information about ancestors at an unconscious level. It is believed that such information remains for life in the long-term storage of brain structures.

According to the criterion of availability of memories, implicit and explicit memory are distinguished.

implicit

Unconscious long term memory hidden and unknowable by humans. The individual does not make volitional efforts and mental effort to memorize. It would seem information forgotten forever is unexpectedly retrieved from the archive at the right time in life.

People who type regularly on a computer don’t remember the order of the keys until they start typing. The fingers themselves know where the keys are. And man does not have conscious access to this knowledge.


The trace of implicit memory is very powerful. People suffering from amnesia, acquired as a result of concussion, traumatic brain injury or emotional shock, can forget a past life. But motor and professional skills are preservedbecause the information was not erased from the implicit part of the memory store.


Explicit


This type of memory is associated with consciousness and the desire to purposefully retain and preserve the accumulated experience. This is how they remember rules, formulas, dates, learn foreign languages. The individual, if necessary, extracts knowledge from memory and voices it.

There are 2 types of explicit memory: episodic and semantic.

  • episodic type associated with the memories of a particular individual, his personal life experience acquired in the distant or recent past.
  • Semantic (historical) memory connected with the accumulated experience of all mankind. Any theoretical knowledge, rules, mathematical formulas, historical dates and events are directly related to this type of memory.

Diagnostics

To determine how developed the DVP is in an individual, there are various test methods.

The first technique is based on memorizing words that are logically unrelated. Each word must be numbered. Subjects receive 2 lists with 10 words. For children from 6 to 12 years old, 1 list is enough. Words can be written on the board or printed on separate pieces of paper. You can read them aloud without allowing the subjects to write them down.

For adults, the list is read 2-3 times, for children — 4-5 times.


Sample lists of words.

List #1:

  • wizard;
  • screen;
  • boat;
  • recipe;
  • ball;
  • wallet;
  • dinner;
  • gold;
  • the circus;
  • conscience.

List #2:

  • lily;
  • ballet;
  • island;
  • poetry;
  • square;
  • psychic;
  • air;
  • freedom;
  • sadness;
  • chocolate.


After carefully listening or reading, you need to write down the words on paper from memory, preferably in the same order. The subjects are then diverted to another activity. After 30 minutes, the words are listened to or read again, then reproduced.

The next day and a week later, the procedure is repeated with a single reading or listening to the lists. The results of 4 procedures are obtained by the formula: C \u003d B: A x 100, where C is the coefficient of long-term memory, B is the number of correctly reproduced words, A is the total number of words.

Indicators in the range of 75-100 indicate a high level of DVP, 50-75 — about the average level, 30-50 — about a low level, 1-29 — about a very low level.

The second technique is designed to memorize the semantic text. The essence of the technique is similar to the previous technique, but the text is not read aloud. Examples of texts are distributed to each subject. The main ideas highlighted in the text should subsequently be reproduced.

This technique is used to diagnose long-term memory in adolescents from 13 years of age and adults. The test results are obtained according to the same formula, the only difference is that here B is the number of correctly reproduced thoughts, A is the total number of highlights in the text.

Sample text.

How many people, so many characters. It turns out that rain can also show its temperament. What is RAIN? These are ATMOSPHERIC PRECISIONS that occur in clouds and FALL TO THE EARTH IN THE FORM OF LIQUID DROPS WITH AVERAGE DIAMETER FROM 0.5 TO 7 MM.

The best thing in the world is SUMMER WARM RAIN. It reminds of a carefree childhood, when all the village CHILDREN RUN BAREFOOT ON WET GRASS. Sometimes a downpour suddenly falls on us. Quite often it REACHES 100 MM/H AND IS ACCOMPANIED BY A STORM. We say about such a rain: «It’s pouring like a bucket.» Due to stormy rainfall, our clothes stick to the body. Where can you hide from him?

IN COLD AUTUMN DAYS, LONG RAINS are observed. We look out the window and dream of a speedy end to this HORRIBLE WEATHER. And it happens that the SHIMTY RAIN will sprinkle a few drops of a person and stop, as if thinking about what to do next. Maybe he is afraid of something or shy? Such rain REMINDERS the tremulous FEELING OF FIRST LOVE. But here the LAST DROP, LIKE A TEAR, FALLED.


How to develop?


It is necessary to develop memory throughout life. This is necessary in order to avoid Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, Pick’s and memory lapses in old age. The cognitive function of the brain is plastic, so it lends itself well to development and training.

The bulk of the material should be divided into parts, blocks and structured.

You can improve memory using various techniques:

  • Aivazovsky’s method involves detailing each image;
  • the Cicero method makes it possible to sort out all the information in the brain archive;
  • memorization of texts, songs, poems;
  • associative memory games;
  • solving Scandinavian and Japanese crosswords;
  • unraveling logical computer puzzles;
  • verbal-logical methods, alphanumeric code, various associative links, methods of «places» and «hangers» in mnemonics;
  • training of attention and thinking with the help of certain exercises.

To maintain an excellent memory, experts recommend lead an active and healthy lifestyle, eat right, provide yourself with good sleep, spend more time in the fresh air, play sports, avoid excessive loads and stressful situations, follow a daily routine and develop intelligence by reading books, playing chess and other ways.


You can learn more about the development of memory in the video below.



Оставьте комментарий

Ваш адрес email не будет опубликован.