What are the professions?

Each person can name only a few dozen professions from memory (50, 70, 100 or a little more). Moreover, all these specialties will be displayed in a document called «International Standard for the Classification of Occupations». Few people know about this document, but there are more than 9,000 specialties in it. And all of them are divided into groups, signs, and some converge according to common properties. If you know the basis of this classification, it is not difficult to choose the ideal profession for yourself.

Classification by E. A. Klimov

Various fields of activity of the modern world require regular replenishment of their ranks with highly qualified specialists. At the same time, professions on which the fate of cities, countries, and even the whole world depend, become in demand at different intervals. For example, in the post-war period, builders were needed in many cities of the USSR and other states, and more recently, the demand for medical workers has increased everywhere.

Modern Russia is a storehouse of highly qualified specialists from a wide range of industries. Every year, Russian universities graduate ready-made personnel capable of maintaining the high status of the Russian Federation on the world stage. There are, of course, moments when professionals in their field change their occupation, but if at a young age a person made the right choice in favor of a particular profession, he will never deviate from it.

At one time, the Soviet psychologist, professor and academician E. A. Klimov, who qualified in the field of psychology of professional studies, developed a table of professional activity, where the attitude of a specialist to a specific element of labor acts as the main criterion.

To understand what we are talking about, consider how certain professions relate to the main types of work.

  • «Man-nature». «Man» in this case plays the role of a specialist, and «nature» involves a description of the type of activity. In simple terms, these are veterinarians, livestock specialists, microbiologists and many other specialists whose professional activities are related to flora and fauna.
  • «Man-Technician». Here we are talking about the interaction of a professional with mechanical objects. This includes fitters, mechanical engineers, electrical engineers. There are a huge number of specialties belonging to this group. But in no case can they be related, since they require maximum responsibility for each individual subject of work.
  • «Man-man». In terms of qualifications, the presented ratio of a specialist and work activity implies direct communication with people. These are sellers, hairdressers, teachers, doctors and other specialties that involve live communication.
  • «Man-sign system». In this case, numbers, symbols, formulas are presented as the basis for the relationship between a specialist and a tool. First of all, these are mathematicians, physicists, chemists, programmers.
  • «Man-Artistic Image». This includes creative professions that make it possible to turn the natural routine into a vivid picture. Specialists of this type are divided according to the tools of labor: some create with brushes, others with a computer mouse, and the third is enough to pick up a simple pencil.


In addition to the presented classification, there are other variations in the division of professions, for example, according to the goals of labor activity, for specific objects of labor and types of conditions. Of course, there are exceptions to the rule, if you think about bloggers, copywriters, cross-cutting workers and many other newfangled professions, but more on that later.


Now it is necessary to understand the classification of registered professions according to the purpose of work.


By purpose of work


Now it is necessary to understand the classification of registered professions according to the purpose of work.

  • Gnostic professions. The word «gnostic» has ancient Greek roots and means «knowledge». And here it becomes clear that the professions related to the presented classification are associated with knowledge, that is, their main goal is knowledge.
  • Transformative professions. Many specialties cannot be attributed exclusively to the Gnostic classification, but this is due to active changes in the state of labor objects. In simple terms, representatives of such professions transform their activities, hence the name of the classification.
  • Survey professions. The main purpose of the presented classification is fiction. To carry out their work, specialists are constantly coming up with new solutions to their work, inventing something new.

To facilitate the understanding of the presented classifications, it is proposed to consider a small table, on the basis of which it will be possible to identify what professions are in question.


By means of labor


It is important to note that all professions have different classifications, where the means of labor are an important distinguishing feature.

  • Hand tool. Specialists of professions belonging to this classification do their work with their own hands.
  • Mechanized tool. In this case, we are talking about manual control of mechanical devices.
  • Automated weapon. The main work is assigned to automated equipment, and a person only needs to start the machine and monitor its serviceability.
  • Functional instrument of the human body. It sounds a little intricate, although everything is extremely simple.

We are talking about the psychological state of the specialist, his even emotional mood. For example, these are acrobats or tightrope walkers.

According to working conditions


Working conditions — the latest, most significant classification of professions for many.

  • Living conditions. Here we are talking about professions that are as close as possible to domestic working conditions.
  • open air conditions. This classification includes professions whose work takes place on the street.
  • Special conditions. This classification option is typical for specialists in professions related to work at height or under water.
  • conditions of high morality. This classification implies a great responsibility towards others. We are talking about judges, teachers, sellers.

J. Holland’s classification

If Russia adheres to the classifications developed by E. A. Klimov, then abroad they take into account the typology of J. Holland. It is based on a comparison of personality types and a variety of professional environments.

  • realism type. Specialists of professions belonging to this type are guided by reality. They are characterized by the stability of the emotional background, they have well-developed dexterity and motor skills, and spatial imagination is kept at a high level. In their work, clarity is important, leading to a specific result. We are talking about positions such as a cook, a driver or a tailor.
  • type of intelligence. These professions are characterized by excessive activity and erudition, coupled with a creative approach. We are talking about mathematicians, physicists, astronomers and so on. It is important for them to find a solution to complex intellectual problems based on the rules of the exact sciences.
  • type of sociality. In this case, we are talking about professions that require direct communication with people. They are the owners of communication skills, understand interlocutors from the first words, help clients solve problem situations. According to the description presented, it becomes clear that this classification includes doctors, teachers, psychologists.
  • Conventional type. The best specialists of routine work. They rarely take on complex tasks, do not look for non-standard solutions to problems. They prefer the daily standard of a monotonous workflow. We are talking about accountants, clerks, merchandisers.
  • Entrepreneurial type. Born leaders, executives, enthusiasts. Specialists of professions of the presented type are distinguished by their energy and ideological spirit. They always go forward, but before each new step they work out a specific strategy. They can be artists, diplomats, brokers.
  • Artistic type. Very thin and vulnerable people. They take any failure to heart. Their emotional background is very unstable. When communicating with people, they pay attention only to their psychological state. From such a small explanation, it becomes clear that we are talking about musicians, photographers, artists.


Classification by L. A. Yovaishi


There is another classification, authored by Yovaisha L.A. He divided the existing specialties according to preferential requirements.

  • Art. The creative direction of professions associated with art, literature, acting, and so on.
  • technical interest. Quite a wide coverage of professions involving practical work. This can be the processing of metal products, the repair of structures and structures, driving a car, and much more.
  • Work with people. These are doctors, educators and the like. A distinctive feature of the representatives of these specialties lies in the correct communication, the ability to find a common wave with others, the ability to understand the opponent perfectly.
  • Brainwork. Without much explanation, it is clear that we are talking about representatives of scientific activity. They are rational, have their own independent point of view.
  • Physical work. Athletes, travelers, operatives, military. All of them are directly related to physical activity. By the way, they have special requirements regarding physical training.
  • material interests. Calculation and planning are important values ​​​​of the work of specialists whose activities are related to numbers. These are economists, accountants and similar specialists. Accurate numbers without floating components allow them to feel at ease.

The most popular specialties


The list of in-demand professions is updated annually. Some specialties fade into the background, while others, on the contrary, jump sharply into the top three from the last place. For example, quite recently, representatives of medicine were in great demand, and now IT specialists are in the same demand.

IT specialists are an important part of modern programming. Since most of the modern fields of activity are entirely dependent on the Internet and electronic means of communication, the amount of work even for a simple programmer has increased significantly. A banal failure in the company’s server can lead to large losses in the income of any organization.

IT specialties are ideal for people with an analytical and mathematical mindset. They must know perfectly not only the programming language, but also English, since most of the technical programs are presented in a foreign language. The remuneration for their skills is appropriate: in Russia, a middle-class IT specialist can easily get about 150 thousand rubles per month of work.

The second place in the list of popular and demanded professions is occupied by medical workers and pharmacists. The profession of a doctor has always been important, but due to the emergence of a coronavirus infection, any representatives of the medical field have received world attention and demand.

It was during the pandemic that humanity realized how important even the most ordinary nurses are. The most favorable working conditions were created for each medical worker, and the payment for their work significantly exceeded the previous one.

The third line in the list of popular professions was occupied by sales managers. Their main job is to increase the volume of sales of goods and services, search for new customers through «cold» and «warm» calls. Thanks to the Internet, the work of sales managers is possible in a remote format. Even from home, they can maintain documentation, reports, replenish the company’s database, and do market analysis. On the one hand, everything seems very simple, but in fact not everyone can cope with such work. Well, those who could become a highly qualified sales manager earn about 200-250 thousand rubles a month.

The fourth place is given to a creative profession called a designer. In this industry, there are many specialists, each of whom is able to turn everyday dullness into bright beauty. Interior designers transform homes, clothing designers create unique outfits, and landscape designers decorate gardens and parks. To become a highly qualified specialist, it is important to get a higher education. In addition, designers must have artistic skills, and for this they are encouraged to take courses in drawing and graphics. For their abilities, designers of any direction receive high wages, which is an excellent bonus and motivation to create new creative projects.


In fifth place are marketers — specialists who can help the consumer choose the right product or service. Representatives of this profession must know human psychology, the only way they can direct the consumer in the right direction (hidden motivation). If a marketer is a master of his craft, many market-leading companies are fighting for him. And the pay is very high.

The sixth position is teachers. In the recent past, they taught schoolchildren and students exclusively through paper media. Well, in the age of modern technology, teachers are required to have knowledge of a PC, the ability to surf the world wide web. This is especially needed now, when there is a risk of the spread of coronavirus infection, which is why students are switching to online learning. Every year, teachers take advanced training courses, receive appropriate certificates and diplomas. And the level of their wages increases almost every six months.

In seventh place are psychologists and psychotherapists. These professions in the modern world have become very popular. Today, every second person has mental problems that it is simply impossible to deal with on their own. Psychologists treat fears, stressful conditions. Psychotherapists help fight mental illness, they even have the right to prescribe certain drugs to their patients.


It is important to note that becoming a good psychologist or psychotherapist is not so easy. It is necessary to get a higher education, complete a bachelor’s degree and a master’s degree. The primary experience will be gained by the future specialist in practice, so that his first working steps will be simple, without stress and worries.

The next profession on the list is a financial analyst. It is these specialists who help companies and businesses in general to get out of the crisis and save their assets. However, without a higher education in financial analytics, there is nothing to do. Of course, for the efforts, knowledge and skills, their wages are kept at a high level.

The ninth line — engineers from different areas. Only thanks to them everything that was created in our world appeared. They design appliances, houses, furniture and much more. Representatives of this profession play an important role in almost all industries. Especially important objects, for example, airports, train stations, space stations, cannot do without them. Highly qualified specialists in engineering industries easily understand the most complex technologies and can improve them. That is why their work is appreciated, which is clearly expressed in monetary well-being.

The last place in the list of professions in demand in recent years is occupied by translators. Thanks to them, all Russian and foreign companies have the opportunity to work together, to be full-fledged partners.

Translators are available in almost all public and private organizations. And in the Ministry of Internal Affairs a whole department has been created for them. They can easily conduct both secular and technical dialogues. The leaders of different countries resort to the services of full-time translators, and those, in turn, must clearly translate the information received, otherwise an unpleasant and even conflict situation may arise.


The leaders of different countries resort to the services of full-time translators, and those, in turn, must clearly translate the information received, otherwise an unpleasant and even conflict situation may arise.


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