Who is a civil servant in Russia? List of professions. What is he obliged to do? Certification and salary

Who is a civil servant and what does he do?

Those wish­ing to become civ­il ser­vants must first fig­ure out who belongs to civ­il ser­vants in Rus­sia, what is the list of pro­fes­sions of such work­ers at the present time. Then you need to clar­i­fy what they are required to do. And only then should you be inter­est­ed in cer­ti­fi­ca­tion, salary and career expec­ta­tions.

Who is that?

The very con­cept of “civ­il ser­vant” in Rus­sia, odd­ly enough for many, does not apply to every­one who works in gov­ern­ment orga­ni­za­tions. So, for exam­ple, var­i­ous rep­re­sen­ta­tives of the armed forces and oth­er pow­er struc­tures, diplo­mats and per­sons hold­ing elect­ed posi­tions, as well as their assis­tants, do not fall into this group in the nar­row sense of the word. Also, rep­re­sen­ta­tives of aux­il­iary, tech­ni­cal per­son­nel of state insti­tu­tions are not civ­il ser­vants in the Russ­ian Fed­er­a­tion. It should be not­ed at the same time that in the list from the pro­file law, on the con­trary, this cat­e­go­ry includes:

  • mil­i­tary per­son­nel;
  • fed­er­al civ­il ser­vants;
  • fed­er­al gov­ern­ment civ­il ser­vants;
  • oth­er employ­ees of the civ­il ser­vice, the com­po­si­tion of which is deter­mined in oth­er laws;
  • admin­is­tra­tive staff of spe­cif­ic regions.

There are only two clas­si­fy­ing signs: the per­for­mance of pro­fes­sion­al duties at the nation­al or region­al lev­el and the receipt of cash pay­ments for these duties from the all-Russ­ian or region­al trea­sury. There­fore, a police­man and a clerk at the MFC are con­sid­ered civ­il ser­vants, and deputies and may­ors are not includ­ed in this cat­e­go­ry. The dif­fer­ence from peo­ple per­form­ing even seem­ing­ly the same func­tions some­times in the pub­lic or com­mer­cial sec­tor is the pres­ence of spe­cial pow­ers, which are also enshrined in law. All of them solve their tasks in the man­ner nec­es­sary for the func­tion­ing of the entire state pow­er.

The list of pro­fes­sions of offi­cials is very long. It is giv­en in the­mat­ic nor­ma­tive doc­u­ments, pri­mar­i­ly in the pres­i­den­tial decree. But in a sim­pler form, this list is as fol­lows:

  • the gov­ern­ment of the coun­try, gov­ern­ments and admin­is­tra­tions of all regions of the coun­try and large cities, their min­istries and depart­ments, local divi­sions and admin­is­tra­tions;
  • rep­re­sen­ta­tives of the pros­e­cu­tor’s office;
  • law enforce­ment struc­tures;
  • armed forces;
  • appa­ra­tus of the State Duma and the Fed­er­a­tion Coun­cil;
  • Admin­is­tra­tion of the Pres­i­dent;
  • rep­re­sen­ta­tives of the Min­istry of For­eign Affairs in Rus­sia and abroad;
  • appa­ra­tus of courts of all lev­els;
  • Office of the Com­mis­sion­er for Human Rights.

At the same time, it is guar­an­teed not to be includ­ed in this com­po­si­tion:

  • munic­i­pal staff;
  • employ­ees of state-owned enter­pris­es;
  • judges;
  • staff of bud­getary insti­tu­tions;
  • doc­tors;
  • teach­ers.

A civ­il ser­vant always works under a con­tract. Employ­ees of bud­getary insti­tu­tions work under labor con­tracts. Their sta­tus actu­al­ly does not dif­fer from the sta­tus of the per­son­nel of com­mer­cial firms and hired indi­vid­ual entre­pre­neurs. Employ­ees are assigned mon­e­tary allowance in full accor­dance with the norms of a nation­al or depart­men­tal nature. State employ­ees are paid salaries based on avail­able fund­ing, as well as at the dis­cre­tion of accoun­tants and senior staff.

The high sta­tus of a civ­il ser­vant is not avail­able to those who:

  • declared incom­pe­tent;
  • has been con­vict­ed and the con­vic­tion has not been expunged or extin­guished;
  • refused to issue a non-dis­clo­sure agree­ment if a state secret is need­ed to com­plete tasks;
  • is ill with cer­tain ail­ments;
  • lost Russ­ian cit­i­zen­ship or became the own­er of dual cit­i­zen­ship;
  • does not have the required skill lev­el to per­form basic duties.

Types of positions and responsibilities


This type of civ­il civ­il ser­vants is des­ig­nat­ed as “active state advis­ers”. They are fur­ther divid­ed into 3 basic ranks:

  • 1 class coin­cides in sta­tus with a colonel gen­er­al or naval admi­ral;
  • Grade 2 equal to a lieu­tenant gen­er­al or vice admi­ral;
  • final­ly, 3 cat­e­go­ry offi­cial­ly equat­ed to a major gen­er­al (or, in the naval sphere, to a rear admi­ral).

It is worth con­sid­er­ing that in the pros­e­cu­tor’s office, divi­sion by rank is not equat­ed with mil­i­tary and naval ser­vice. They have their own gra­da­tion of offi­cial posi­tions, which are equat­ed to state advis­ers to the Min­istry of Jus­tice. Spe­cial ranks are also intro­duced in:

  • the police;
  • cus­toms ser­vice;
  • gen­er­al organs of jus­tice.


These are already sim­ply “state advis­ers”, the addi­tion of “valid” can­not be applied to them. In the same way, 3 ranks are dis­tin­guished. They equate to:

  • colonels and cap­tains of the first ranks;
  • lieu­tenant colonels and cap­tains of the sec­ond ranks;
  • majors and cap­tains of the third rank.


Here the titles of advis­ers are dis­tin­guished. Again there is a divi­sion into 3 key ranks. They are equat­ed to:

  • cap­tains and lieu­tenant com­man­ders;
  • senior lieu­tenants;
  • lieu­tenants;
  • lawyers of 1–3 cat­e­gories (in the pros­e­cu­tor’s ser­vice).


And again, the clas­si­fi­ca­tion of cat­e­gories has 3 links. The posi­tions them­selves at this lev­el are called ref­er­ents. Com­pli­ance pro­vid­ed:

  • junior lieu­tenants;
  • ensigns;
  • senior mid­ship­men.


The low­est fed­er­al and region­al civ­il ser­vice class ranks are junior advis­ers. Sec­re­taries are also includ­ed in this group. Sim­i­lar mil­i­tary posi­tions are chief fore­men on ships, fore­men and sergeants, and cor­po­rals. There are no iden­ti­cal posi­tions in the pros­e­cu­tor’s office. In the police, jobs are iden­ti­cal in rank — from pri­vates to senior sergeants, inclu­sive.

But this gra­da­tion is not enough to clear­ly describe what is includ­ed in the func­tions of civ­il ser­vants, what they are oblig­ed to do, and what they are for­bid­den to do. An alter­na­tive and more con­ve­nient divi­sion is as fol­lows:

  • lead­ers (includ­ing deputies);
  • assis­tants (they are advis­ers) — help lead­ers;
  • spe­cial­ists — solve cer­tain tasks at a pro­fes­sion­al lev­el;
  • pro­vid­ing spe­cial­ists (they work with infor­ma­tion, doc­u­men­ta­tion, finan­cial and eco­nom­ic aspects, with­out which the activ­i­ties of state bod­ies are unre­al­iz­able).

Man­agers and assis­tants belong to the high­est, main, lead­ing cat­e­gories of offi­cial posi­tions. The same ranks, includ­ing the senior rank, may be held by spe­cial­ists. As for pro­vid­ing spe­cial­ists, they can­not be only man­agers and their deputies. It is per­mis­si­ble for them to occu­py posts of a dif­fer­ent lev­el.

Cor­re­spon­dence between var­i­ous civ­il, mil­i­tary, pros­e­cu­to­r­i­al and police ser­vice lev­els was not intro­duced by chance — it allows you to eas­i­ly move from one pro­file to anoth­er with­out an extreme­ly com­plex cal­cu­la­tion of sta­tus, and also to deter­mine who is in charge in a par­tic­u­lar sit­u­a­tion.

Offi­cial priv­i­leges are incon­ceiv­able with­out duties — and this point can­not be bypassed when char­ac­ter­iz­ing the activ­i­ties of civ­il ser­vants.. The nec­es­sary func­tions are fixed in the reg­u­la­tions of indi­vid­ual depart­ments. They are more clear­ly defined in per­son­al con­tracts. The gen­er­al require­ments are as fol­lows:

  • enforce­ment of basic state laws (includ­ing when com­mu­ni­cat­ing with cit­i­zens and rep­re­sen­ta­tives of orga­ni­za­tions);
  • strict adher­ence to offi­cial reg­u­la­tions;
  • exe­cu­tion of the rou­tine approved by the order of the depart­ment;
  • main­tain­ing and, if nec­es­sary, strength­en­ing qual­i­fi­ca­tions;
  • preser­va­tion of all types of secre­cy pro­vid­ed for by law;
  • avoid any slan­der and dis­sem­i­na­tion of false infor­ma­tion.

A sep­a­rate block of duties is relat­ed to anti-cor­rup­tion mea­sures. It’s about:

  • inform­ing about one­self and fam­i­ly mem­bers, about oth­er rel­a­tives, about income and dis­pos­able prop­er­ty;
  • inform­ing about the renun­ci­a­tion of cit­i­zen­ship or the emer­gence of dual cit­i­zen­ship;
  • com­pli­ance with the anti-cor­rup­tion pro­ce­dures estab­lished by the reg­u­la­tions;
  • noti­fi­ca­tion of per­son­al inter­est in a par­tic­u­lar solu­tion to a spe­cif­ic prob­lem;
  • report on any attempts of bribery, pres­sure.


Pub­lic ser­vice attracts many peo­ple pre­cise­ly by the pow­ers that they are giv­en. But they dif­fer marked­ly depend­ing on the sub­sti­tu­tion:

  • actu­al admin­is­tra­tive posi­tions;
  • posts in the police;
  • mil­i­tary and naval ranks;
  • cer­tain posi­tions in the pros­e­cu­tor’s office, cus­toms and the Min­istry of Jus­tice.

Any such per­son, how­ev­er, has the right to know the cur­rent reg­u­la­tions and oth­er doc­u­ments that define his func­tions, tasks and require­ments, impor­tant per­for­mance cri­te­ria. There is also the right to get acquaint­ed with the assess­ments of their activ­i­ties by man­age­ment, con­trollers and oth­er per­sons who are allowed by law to give feed­back. This also includes the right to famil­iar­ize your­self with a per­son­al file, to add to this case your own expla­na­tions on var­i­ous cas­es and events, and oth­er mate­ri­als. In a sep­a­rate group are those pow­ers that allow you to more effi­cient­ly and quick­ly per­form pro­fes­sion­al duties. It’s about:

  • main­te­nance of tech­ni­cal and orga­ni­za­tion­al con­di­tions;
  • request­ing any infor­ma­tion from man­age­ment, oth­er employ­ees, indi­vid­u­als and orga­ni­za­tions;
  • sub­mis­sion of pro­pos­als for improv­ing the work of the state body;
  • gain­ing access to state secrets and oth­er restrict­ed data that are need­ed to com­plete the task.

The civ­il ser­vice implies a rather wide list of social and pri­vate rights for every­one who is engaged in it. Thus, accord­ing to the law, the dura­tion and con­di­tions of rest, wage para­me­ters, and addi­tion­al incen­tive pay­ments should be pre­scribed in con­tracts.

Offi­cials have every right to par­tic­i­pate in a trade union rep­re­sent­ing their inter­ests, or to refuse to par­tic­i­pate in such a union. Coer­cion to par­tic­i­pate in it, to with­draw from it, or to vote at a trade union meet­ing in a cer­tain way is not allowed. A civ­il ser­vant has every right to defend his inter­ests, pre­scribed in the leg­is­la­tion.

He can do this:

  • address­ing the imme­di­ate super­vi­sor;
  • fil­ing com­plaints with high­er man­age­ment;
  • fil­ing law­suits in court and object­ing to them dur­ing the process;
  • attract­ing pub­lic atten­tion (but only with­out dam­ag­ing the rep­u­ta­tion of the ser­vice as a whole, its orga­ni­za­tion and its lead­ers in par­tic­u­lar).

Inalien­able pro­tect­ed rights are also health insur­ance and receipt of a state pen­sion at least in the same amount that is assigned to ordi­nary cit­i­zens in sim­i­lar con­di­tions.. Usu­al­ly, var­i­ous depart­ments pro­vide their employ­ees with extend­ed guar­an­tees of both med­ical and pen­sion nature.

Civ­il ser­vants have the right to engage in oth­er work on a reim­bursable basis, except in cas­es where a con­flict of inter­est is like­ly or it becomes impos­si­ble to per­form essen­tial duties. Employ­ers — both the depart­ment and a third-par­ty orga­ni­za­tion or indi­vid­ual entre­pre­neurs — must be noti­fied of such a com­bi­na­tion of jobs by a noti­fi­ca­tion on a spe­cial form.

Police offi­cers, mil­i­tary per­son­nel, rep­re­sen­ta­tives of the Nation­al Guard and some oth­er struc­tures can­not work part-time.

Primary requirements

The age lim­it for civ­il ser­vants should be no more than 65 years. This require­ment is enshrined in leg­is­la­tion and can­not be can­celed at the depart­men­tal lev­el. If you have the sta­tus of an assis­tant or advis­er help­ing a par­tic­u­lar per­son, the term of hold­ing the posi­tion may be extend­ed by the deci­sion of the imme­di­ate head or head of the orga­ni­za­tion (branch, divi­sion, depart­ment). This peri­od may not exceed the tenure of the assist­ed staff mem­ber. For man­agers, it is allowed to extend the age of hold­ing a posi­tion by the deci­sion of their supe­ri­ors or the struc­tures that appoint­ed them to the post. But even such an exten­sion is impos­si­ble beyond 70 years.

If, nev­er­the­less, there is a need for the fur­ther per­for­mance by a civ­il ser­vant of his func­tion or oth­er tasks in a state body, he can be hired under a fixed-term employ­ment con­tract for a posi­tion that is not includ­ed in the list of posi­tions in the civ­il ser­vice. It is nec­es­sary to check the qual­i­ties and skills of employ­ees when they first fill a posi­tion. This ver­i­fi­ca­tion is car­ried out either upon pre­sen­ta­tion of doc­u­ments, or through a pro­ba­tion­ary peri­od, which may be longer or short­er, which is deter­mined by the spe­cif­ic posi­tion and place of work.

In addi­tion, annu­al qual­i­fi­ca­tion exams are held to deter­mine the pro­fes­sion­al suit­abil­i­ty and lev­el of moti­va­tion of an offi­cial.

When mov­ing to a high­er posi­tion, an addi­tion­al inter­view is manda­to­ry.. All oth­er types of tests and inspec­tions in the civil­ian sec­tor are not allowed. But in the struc­tures respon­si­ble for the secu­ri­ty of the state, checks will be much stricter. Usu­al­ly, the pres­ence of senior­i­ty and pos­i­tive ref­er­ences from the pre­vi­ous place of work means that the can­di­date will be accept­ed after a brief con­ver­sa­tion. How­ev­er, for can­di­dates under the age of 22, a manda­to­ry intern­ship is pro­vid­ed, regard­less of the lev­el of edu­ca­tion and oth­er points.

The civ­il ser­vant must know:

  • the coun­try’s con­sti­tu­tion;
  • fed­er­al laws;
  • job sched­ule;
  • offi­cial reg­u­la­tions;
  • depart­men­tal orders and direc­tives;
  • job descrip­tion;
  • doc­u­ment flow rules;
  • their pow­ers and respon­si­bil­i­ties;
  • oth­er infor­ma­tion that is nec­es­sary and desir­able for the per­for­mance of the work.


The fact that civ­il ser­vants are paid quite a lot moti­vates many to aspire to become them. How­ev­er, this is impos­si­ble with­out peri­od­ic cer­ti­fi­ca­tions, the first of which is car­ried out already upon admis­sion to the posi­tion. The pur­pose of cer­ti­fi­ca­tion is to ver­i­fy com­pli­ance with the duties per­formed. Its result is the prepa­ra­tion of a moti­vat­ed review for a con­trolled peri­od. To this act is added infor­ma­tion about com­plet­ed projects and tasks solved.

By default, the attes­ta­tion check pass­es 1 time in 36 months. Oth­ers are pro­vid­ed for by spe­cial orders. It can be orga­nized if there is rea­son to believe that the com­pe­tence of an employ­ee of a state body has been lost ahead of sched­ule, either when mov­ing to a new lev­el, or when reor­ga­niz­ing the struc­ture. In any cer­ti­fi­ca­tion, atten­tion is paid to the lev­el of train­ing of the assessed per­sons. The­o­ret­i­cal­ly, one can be trained in the spe­cial­iza­tion “state and munic­i­pal man­age­ment” at any uni­ver­si­ty.

But the best prospects are open to grad­u­ates:

  • Moscow State Uni­ver­si­ty;
  • MGIMO;
  • HSE;
  • acad­e­my of the FSB;
  • finan­cial uni­ver­si­ty under the gov­ern­ment;
  • Plekhanov Russ­ian Uni­ver­si­ty of Eco­nom­ics;
  • Far East­ern Fed­er­al Uni­ver­si­ty;
  • UrFU;
  • OmGU;
  • Pacif­ic State Uni­ver­si­ty;
  • NCFU;
  • TUSUR.

Major offi­cials often have legal train­ing. Quite a few of them were also edu­cat­ed in:

  • eco­nom­ic spe­cial­ties;
  • soci­ol­o­gy;
  • inter­na­tion­al rela­tions;
  • mil­i­tary pro­file;
  • for­eign lan­guages.


Salaries in state bod­ies are sta­ble. In addi­tion, employ­ees receive excel­lent pen­sions and large ben­e­fits in accor­dance with their duties. The aver­age salary in gov­ern­ment agen­cies is 60,000 rubles per month. In the cen­tral struc­tures of min­istries and depart­ments, it exceeds 140,000 rubles. In the exec­u­tive branch, the income reach­es 130 thou­sand, in the courts and the pros­e­cu­tor’s office — 122 thou­sand, in oth­er struc­tures — 180 thou­sand.

At the region­al lev­el, the dif­fer­ence between the incomes of rep­re­sen­ta­tives of exec­u­tive pow­er of fed­er­al and local sta­tus reach­es more than 40%. It also con­cerns spe­cif­ic sub­jects of the fed­er­a­tion, and lev­els of gov­ern­ment.

On aver­age, civ­il ser­vants in the regions receive 55,700 rubles. At the munic­i­pal lev­el — 45,500 rubles. Much depends on the spe­cif­ic posi­tion.

Career and prospects

The pro­fes­sion­al devel­op­ment of civ­il ser­vants large­ly depends not only on them, but also on direct man­age­ment. Some have been in the same posi­tion for sev­er­al years, while oth­ers are grow­ing rapid­ly. It must be tak­en into account that the most “deli­cious” places are usu­al­ly reserved for “their” peo­ple. The nature of the work in many cas­es is overt­ly bureau­crat­ic. With a change in lead­er­ship, there is a great dan­ger of los­ing a posi­tion with­out pleas­ing the new boss.

You can increase your chances of suc­cess by:

  • sec­ond high­er edu­ca­tion;
  • learn­ing for­eign lan­guages;
  • study­ing the fea­tures and nuances of a par­tic­u­lar area (tax or finan­cial, trade or con­struc­tion, hous­ing and com­mu­nal or oth­er areas of man­age­ment);
  • estab­lish­ing con­tacts with man­age­ment;
  • broad­en­ing the gen­er­al out­look;
  • the abil­i­ty to use the gen­er­al the­o­ry of man­age­ment and oth­er dis­ci­plines in prac­tice;
  • suc­cess­ful solu­tion of emerg­ing prob­lems in the short­est pos­si­ble time and with min­i­mal expen­di­ture of labor and oth­er resources.

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