The article briefly describes everything about the profession of an electrician. It is indicated how a communications specialist, an electrician-electrician differs in cable laying, testing and measurement, as well as other work.
The profession of an electrician is a typical “child of technological progress”. It arose at the end of the 19th century, when the length of practically used power lines grew rapidly. The power of electrical networks also increased rapidly, not to mention the variety of devices connected to them. Although technologically this specialization has gone far ahead in comparison with its first days, it still has to solve two main tasks: the adjustment and repair of electrical equipment and equipment. The more effectively specialists cope with this function, the less often they have to solve the third task — to deal with emergencies and their consequences.
First of all, the specialization of an electrician in laying cables, repairing and maintaining communication lines appeared. After all, several decades before the launch of the first large-scale power plant in different countries, telegraph lines were intensively built. Moreover, from the end of the 1870s, wired telephony also actively entered life, and the first power transmission line started working only in 1891. Although almost no one uses the telegraph anymore, and the traditional cable telephone is losing its relevance, communication specialists do not sit without work. We constantly have to make efforts to develop and work normally:
- mobile communication stations;
- Wi-Fi hotspots;
- radio broadcasting and television broadcasting antennas, repeaters;
- service and corporate communication systems;
- other devices and complexes using a wired or wireless connection.
What is not less important, tasks must be completed quickly and accurately. Even an extra minute, when someone cannot use the connection normally, has a very high price, sometimes measured not only in money, but also in reputation, health and even life. An equally important role in the modern world, however, is played by an electrician for testing and measurement. He checks how certain main and internal sections of the power grid work. Since they are almost always under high voltage, a special permit and special equipment is required to work.
The composition of the tests carried out is determined not only by the type of networks or devices, but also by the ranks of the installers themselves. The test procedure often involves the application of high, sometimes even exceeding the design values, voltage. At such a moment only, it is possible to find out how the highway itself works and whether the means of protection are reliable. A significant part of the work, as it is easy to understand, takes place in the open air, and sometimes even at a height. It is also common to leave or go to remote hard-to-reach places.
The distribution network operator is exactly the kind of specialist whose work reduces the need to call for repair and emergency services. He will have to serve not only trunk lines, but also:
- distribution areas;
- transformer substations;
- means of isolation and lightning protection;
- structural supports of networks.
Automation electricians (dispatching equipment and teleautomatics) are of great importance in industry. They do a variety of jobs. In particular, it is necessary to regularly pack parts, parts of components, paint them before long-distance transportation.
These specialists also have special categories that determine their qualifications. The list of necessary knowledge and skills can always be found in the regulatory documents.
Anyone who holds the position of an electrician for the maintenance of electrical equipment must certainly know:
- fundamentals of electrical engineering;
- arrangement of various types (models) of electric motors and installations;
- principles and basic diagrams of electrical machines;
- arrangement of control and emergency shutdown systems;
- electrical and fire safety measures;
- device and methods of using measuring equipment;
- maintenance work order.
The main activities of these employees are:
- receiving assignments (orders) for work shifts;
- repair of power, lighting, sometimes low-current lines;
- daily inspection of entrusted lines, equipment and adjacent territory;
- identifying the causes of problems and eliminating them, if possible in advance;
- maintaining order and cleanliness in the workplace;
- small electrical work when upgrading equipment or its emergency replacement.
If an electrician has a production specialty for working with a burglar and fire alarm of the 4th category, then his functional responsibilities will differ. Such a specialist is obliged to install (mount) and adjust heterogeneous signaling devices. It determines their composition, quantity and specific optimal models in each case. When choosing and performing work, you will have to take into account humidity, dust and other operating conditions. Additionally, you have to:
- maintain and change alkaline, acid and lithium-ion batteries;
- check the performance of individual sensors and signal lines as a whole;
- find out the reasons why the system does not work or often gives false positives;
- advise other people on how to properly use the alarm.
The professional standard was also developed for electricians of distribution networks. In the current ETKS, they are assigned the code 20.032. Most often this specialist does:
- basic installation and adjustment work on networks for which he has a permit;
- auxiliary work where there is no tolerance for voltage (on the instructions of authorized people and under their direct supervision);
- maintenance of substation equipment of various capacities;
- repair of distribution systems;
- rigging using simple mechanization;
- purification and drying of oils at technological installations;
- maintenance of compressor and vacuum equipment.
Electrician has important professional powers. In particular, he has the right to make independent decisions within the limits of his competence. He also has the opportunity at the expense of the employer to take retraining and advanced training courses. Like other employees, the opportunity is provided to make suggestions on how to improve the work of the organization, as well as to demand the receipt of documents and materials necessary for their activities.
Finally, it is possible and necessary to ensure optimal conditions for their activities.
Service and other sanctions are imposed on electricians if they:
- will not perform (as well as perform incompletely or untimely) their main functions;
- do not comply with the orders of managers that correspond to their competence;
- break the law;
- cause material damage;
- will not comply with work discipline and labor protection standards;
- will conduct work with a deviation from fire regulations;
- mislead management about their work and its results.
Knowledge and skills
Regardless of the specific electrical specialization, the requirements are more or less the same. All candidates are expected to understand the general principles of electrical installations and the specifics of the operation of individual types of devices. Also play an important role:
- knowledge of permissible deviations of metering devices, instrumentation;
- possession of fire extinguishing equipment;
- the ability to provide first aid in case of electric shock and burns;
- compliance with a certain electrical safety group;
- ability to use personal protective equipment;
- power management skills;
- possession of related specialties.
The training necessary for masters of electrical installations is carried out in approximately 80 educational institutions in Russia. The best positions, according to experts, are:
- Moscow College of Architecture, Design and Reengineering;
- Polytechnic College at Peter the Great University;
- Department of Secondary Vocational Education of the Agrarian University of Novosibirsk.
To improve your skills, it is better to immediately enter an institute or university to specialize in electrical engineering. This will significantly expand the opportunities for professional growth compared to special courses. Good preparation is given by:
- South Ural State University;
- Kurgan State University;
- Far Eastern Federal University;
- Mining University of St. Petersburg;
- Kuban Agrarian University;
- Kuzbass Technical University.
How is it different from an electrician?
The difference between these professionals is quite noticeable. An electrician mainly works on already established and debugged power lines, local power networks and equipment. But he does not always cope if you need to mount networks or equipment from scratch. In such cases, just attract electricians.
They put up supports and stretch the wires; only in very rare cases do both profiles intersect.
Place of work
An electrician can work:
- on the repair and adjustment of station equipment of power plants and distribution networks;
- on the repair of long remote sections of networks (from the energy sector);
- in the management company;
- in a construction company;
- at the railway station;
- as part of a telephone operational mobile team;
- in sea and river ports;
- in cable television organizations;
- on radio stations (both on-air and official);
- in industrial and agricultural enterprises.
How much does he earn?
The salary received by electricians depends not only on the specific region of Russia, but also on the level of qualification. The average level in the country is 30,000 rubles. In the Far Eastern regions and the Far North, they are paid 70-80 thousand rubles.
Elsewhere the situation is as follows:
- an electrician who dared to work in Khanty-Mansiysk or Yakutia can claim 60,000;
- monthly payment on Sakhalin, in the Krasnoyarsk Territory often reaches 50,000;
- in the municipal economy, payment in any city is only 25-30% higher than the minimum wage;
- the average metropolitan salary in the private sector is from 50 to 55 thousand rubles, in the housing and communal services system — from 20,000 rubles (for specialists of the 2nd category).