The construction industry has never stood still. This means that workers associated with this area have always been, are and will be in demand in the labor market. Almost every production requires a person who quickly and efficiently performs welding work. All this and much more indicates the relevance of the profession of a welder today and in the near future.
A welder is a person who works with various metals, namely with their connection to each other using special equipment (electric arc welding, gas torch). The professional skill of a specialist in this field can be determined by the quality of the work performed.
The profession of a welder is, first of all, a working specialty that does not forgive even the smallest mistakes, because they can lead to disastrous consequences. That is why it is very important to be able to observe all possible safety measures and do not forget to use protection (a mask with specially tinted glass). The latter is necessary so that the worker can protect his face and eyesight from various injuries that are likely to occur due to close contact with sparks and flames.
In the modern world, the profession has several main divisions of specialization:
- electric welder;
- gas welder;
- electric welder-argonist;
- automatic welding machine operator.
Pros and cons
Consider the main distinguishing qualities of the profession.
- the profession is in great demand, work can be found anywhere;
- it is easy for a young welder without any experience to find a free position with a good salary;
- at the moment in the Russian Federation there is an acute shortage of high-class specialists;
- on average, the salary of a welder is up to 50 thousand rubles per month;
- entitlement to special pension conditions.
- the work itself is very dangerous;
- working conditions are most often difficult due to various external factors;
- high load on vision, provoking the development of diseases over the years;
- a high probability of dust entering the respiratory tract, which can also cause diseases.
The harmfulness of the work lies in the heavy load on the eyesight and skin damage that can occur if the basic safety rules are not followed correctly when working with welding.
A special document was developed for welders, which is now called a professional standard. It spells out in detail what a specialist must be able to do and perform in his position and qualifications. Unlike the same ETKS, the professional standard has much more detailed information and all the necessary descriptions that will help the future welder learn all his rights and obligations to the employer.
The latter uses this document for competent personnel management, the formation of a personnel policy and a payment system, the creation of a staffing table and job descriptions, as well as for concluding labor agreements and conducting training or certification of employees.
At this point, much depends on the field in which the specialist works, and the level of his qualifications. To sum it all up, the welder:
- fluently reads drawings and diagrams of welded metal structures;
- knows how to correctly use both manual arc and argon-arc or plasma welding of medium complexity;
- performs welding of complex elements in different spatial positions of welds, with the exception of the ceiling;
- makes manual oxygen cutting of complex parts made of special steel and non-ferrous metals, including cast iron products;
- performs welding of hot pipes and cylinders, eliminates defects in mechanisms and structures;
- is responsible for the hardfacing of complex and worn parts.
The welder must have the knowledge, a list of which will be presented below. In order to become a leader among other specialists, you need to upgrade your skills, increasing your own professionalism every time there is such an opportunity.. To do this, you need to take special courses that guarantee a significant improvement in skills, and later a discharge. The higher the category, the more the payment for the work of a specialist is estimated.
Those same categories.
- 1 rank — a novice, a simple trainee who has no qualifications at all, but is quite capable of doing the work of cutting and welding the most primitive structures.
- 2nd category — still the same trainee, but already able to weld in the lower and vertical position.
- 3rd category — is assigned after the end of special training, is no longer a student and can start full-fledged, easiest work (manual and arc apparatus).
- 4th category — qualification allows you to work with structures no higher than average complexity and carry out welding in any position, except for the ceiling. At this stage, the welder already knows how to create hermetic seams and weld two pipes that work under pressure.
- 5th category — it is allowed to engage in more complex work, which is associated with multi-position equipment and the production of welding vacuum tight joints.
- 6th category — the most final and highest class of this sphere. It allows you to work with equipment and parts of any complexity, even on gas or oil pipelines, which are considered the most profitable.
Knowledge and skills
The welder must:
- know and understand electrical engineering and methods of melting metals with which he works;
- understand the gases involved in antioxidants;
- be able to distinguish between the ways and basics of the operation of the machines used;
- adhere to safety regulations;
- have theoretical knowledge in the field of physics and chemistry.
It is worth reminding once again that the work is very difficult and requires highly pumped physical qualities in advance. The welder must be strong and hardy, and most importantly — completely healthy. Over the years, work has a strong effect on well-being, so coming right away with some deviations is definitely not the most suitable option.
Also, the specialist must be dexterous and quick.to take on more responsibilities, improve your skills and earn many times more than your colleagues. Stress resistance and competitiveness should be added to the latter, but this is not so important, since the specialty is in any case very in demand, and there is no competition as such.
There is no reward without patience, so this quality also plays an important role. Personally, for yourself it is worth being persistent and hardworking, because only the person himself depends on how much he will earn.
In order to start working you need to get at least 3 ranks. They are given only at the end of special courses in the same vocational school or college. There are even universities, higher education gives impressive guarantees for becoming a personnel manager in the future or getting the opportunity to organize your own company.
If you enter immediately after the end of the 9th grade, then the training will last three years, and after the 11th — only two. After the 9th, you need to pass only the OGE and have a certificate with a minimum score. Only in some institutions require you to hand over some items additionally. All this must be clarified on an individual basis. After the 11th, the algorithm is essentially the same. Here is another priority of this profession. There are no mandatory exams for admission to an educational institution. But it is worth remembering that further it will be necessary to make a lot of effort, studying such subjects as physics, mathematics and chemistry, because it is with them that the whole theory will be connected, which will need to be passed later.
Yet there are training centers for the development of technical specialties. They were created more for more mature individuals who decided too late what they want to be in this life. Education here is a little accelerated by the division scheme into academic hours of theory and practical training. The price of the issue depends entirely on what kind of qualification the applicant has chosen.
You can choose among such specialties: “Welder of electric welding and gas welding works” and “Adjuster of welding and gas-plasma cutting equipment”. The most expensive thing will be to study as an argonist.
Certification takes place immediately after the completion of the theoretical and practical parts of the training. According to the rules for passing exams, time is limited, and all the given theory is combined in one single ticket. It includes:
- technology of the welding process;
- first aid;
- safety precautions at an industrial facility and during the use of welding.
Practice is all the same technical exercises that prepare students for the work ahead. After successfully passing all the exams, students can start working with welding and move up their own career ladder. Further training takes place during work additionally.
If it turned out that the student failed to pass the exam the first time, then he has another chance after a month. Repeated failure forces you to listen to the course again or abandon the idea of going in this direction altogether.
Place of work
Virtually any industry is a goldmine for a welder.
The most common sectors for profitable work:
- construction sites;
- auto repair shops;
- factory shops and factory production;
- companies involved in the installation and repair of system communications;
- agricultural sphere;
- oil refining and shipping.
Even if the welder does not have much experience, he can always find a job in one of the housing and communal services. Owners of private companies and the service sector are also always happy to have such specialists.. It is from this stage that it is best to start your career, so that later you can move on to something more serious. Jobs of the “welder-assembler” type are especially pleasing, because experience in such jobs is gained faster, the salary is fatter, etc. Most often, experienced workers find themselves in the industry at various construction sites.. Welding of metal structures is the main work of a welder, and the main technologies used in his work are electric arc welding and a gas torch.
Beginners of 2-3 categories work on a semi-automatic device. This wonderful machine replaces the need to call in an experienced welder every time a piece of work needs to be done. To understand exactly how this machine works, you just need to study the parameters. Another miracle for beginners is working on resistance welding machines. Access to it is open from 2 to 5 categories. The 3rd category also includes a welder of fiber optics, reinforcing meshes and frames. There are also vacancies such as a welder-fitter. You should not score on such part-time jobs, because although they are difficult, they are really profitable. If a specialist has reached the 5th category, he can try himself as a locksmith. In the same category, you can start welding the pipeline and get a good profit for it.
Welders also often act as plumbers, as they are prepared to work with bronze, brass and copper.
How much does he earn in Russia?
Numerous analyzes conducted by independent experts have repeatedly proved that the work of a welder is one of the highest paid.
Here are the stats:
- maximum salary — up to 150 thousand rubles;
- average salary — 50-60 thousand rubles;
- minimum wage — 20-30 thousand rubles.
You can bring even greater clarity to the picture if you look at salaries by category:
- second — 35 thousand;
- third — 40 thousand;
- fourth — 55 thousand;
- fifth — up to 70 thousand;
- sixth — up to 90 thousand.
It is clear that at the very beginning of a career it is difficult to get a decent income. But customers are ready to pay the maximum salary to those workers who will be universal. They don’t care what your official rank is. For them, the most important thing is the quality of their work. A skilled worker will always earn many times more, and rightly so.
In order to make good money, you need to develop, move forward. For those who have received higher education, the doors to big business are always open. You can hire a small staff of workers or work on a self-employment basis.