work features. How much does he earn? Vocational training and certification rules. Job description and professional standard

All about the profession of a welder

The con­struc­tion indus­try has nev­er stood still. This means that work­ers asso­ci­at­ed with this area have always been, are and will be in demand in the labor mar­ket. Almost every pro­duc­tion requires a per­son who quick­ly and effi­cient­ly per­forms weld­ing work. All this and much more indi­cates the rel­e­vance of the pro­fes­sion of a welder today and in the near future.


A welder is a per­son who works with var­i­ous met­als, name­ly with their con­nec­tion to each oth­er using spe­cial equip­ment (elec­tric arc weld­ing, gas torch). The pro­fes­sion­al skill of a spe­cial­ist in this field can be deter­mined by the qual­i­ty of the work per­formed.

The pro­fes­sion of a welder is, first of all, a work­ing spe­cial­ty that does not for­give even the small­est mis­takes, because they can lead to dis­as­trous con­se­quences. That is why it is very impor­tant to be able to observe all pos­si­ble safe­ty mea­sures and do not for­get to use pro­tec­tion (a mask with spe­cial­ly tint­ed glass). The lat­ter is nec­es­sary so that the work­er can pro­tect his face and eye­sight from var­i­ous injuries that are like­ly to occur due to close con­tact with sparks and flames.

In the mod­ern world, the pro­fes­sion has sev­er­al main divi­sions of spe­cial­iza­tion:

  • elec­tric welder;
  • gas welder;
  • elec­tric welder-argonist;
  • auto­mat­ic weld­ing machine oper­a­tor.

Pros and cons

Con­sid­er the main dis­tin­guish­ing qual­i­ties of the pro­fes­sion.


  • the pro­fes­sion is in great demand, work can be found any­where;
  • it is easy for a young welder with­out any expe­ri­ence to find a free posi­tion with a good salary;
  • at the moment in the Russ­ian Fed­er­a­tion there is an acute short­age of high-class spe­cial­ists;
  • on aver­age, the salary of a welder is up to 50 thou­sand rubles per month;
  • enti­tle­ment to spe­cial pen­sion con­di­tions.


  • the work itself is very dan­ger­ous;
  • work­ing con­di­tions are most often dif­fi­cult due to var­i­ous exter­nal fac­tors;
  • high load on vision, pro­vok­ing the devel­op­ment of dis­eases over the years;
  • a high prob­a­bil­i­ty of dust enter­ing the res­pi­ra­to­ry tract, which can also cause dis­eases.

The harm­ful­ness of the work lies in the heavy load on the eye­sight and skin dam­age that can occur if the basic safe­ty rules are not fol­lowed cor­rect­ly when work­ing with weld­ing.

Job description

A spe­cial doc­u­ment was devel­oped for welders, which is now called a pro­fes­sion­al stan­dard. It spells out in detail what a spe­cial­ist must be able to do and per­form in his posi­tion and qual­i­fi­ca­tions. Unlike the same ETKS, the pro­fes­sion­al stan­dard has much more detailed infor­ma­tion and all the nec­es­sary descrip­tions that will help the future welder learn all his rights and oblig­a­tions to the employ­er.

The lat­ter uses this doc­u­ment for com­pe­tent per­son­nel man­age­ment, the for­ma­tion of a per­son­nel pol­i­cy and a pay­ment sys­tem, the cre­ation of a staffing table and job descrip­tions, as well as for con­clud­ing labor agree­ments and con­duct­ing train­ing or cer­ti­fi­ca­tion of employ­ees.


At this point, much depends on the field in which the spe­cial­ist works, and the lev­el of his qual­i­fi­ca­tions. To sum it all up, the welder:

  • flu­ent­ly reads draw­ings and dia­grams of weld­ed met­al struc­tures;
  • knows how to cor­rect­ly use both man­u­al arc and argon-arc or plas­ma weld­ing of medi­um com­plex­i­ty;
  • per­forms weld­ing of com­plex ele­ments in dif­fer­ent spa­tial posi­tions of welds, with the excep­tion of the ceil­ing;
  • makes man­u­al oxy­gen cut­ting of com­plex parts made of spe­cial steel and non-fer­rous met­als, includ­ing cast iron prod­ucts;
  • per­forms weld­ing of hot pipes and cylin­ders, elim­i­nates defects in mech­a­nisms and struc­tures;
  • is respon­si­ble for the hard­fac­ing of com­plex and worn parts.


The welder must have the knowl­edge, a list of which will be pre­sent­ed below. In order to become a leader among oth­er spe­cial­ists, you need to upgrade your skills, increas­ing your own pro­fes­sion­al­ism every time there is such an oppor­tu­ni­ty.. To do this, you need to take spe­cial cours­es that guar­an­tee a sig­nif­i­cant improve­ment in skills, and lat­er a dis­charge. The high­er the cat­e­go­ry, the more the pay­ment for the work of a spe­cial­ist is esti­mat­ed.

Those same cat­e­gories.

  • 1 rank — a novice, a sim­ple trainee who has no qual­i­fi­ca­tions at all, but is quite capa­ble of doing the work of cut­ting and weld­ing the most prim­i­tive struc­tures.
  • 2nd cat­e­go­ry — still the same trainee, but already able to weld in the low­er and ver­ti­cal posi­tion.
  • 3rd cat­e­go­ry — is assigned after the end of spe­cial train­ing, is no longer a stu­dent and can start full-fledged, eas­i­est work (man­u­al and arc appa­ra­tus).
  • 4th cat­e­go­ry — qual­i­fi­ca­tion allows you to work with struc­tures no high­er than aver­age com­plex­i­ty and car­ry out weld­ing in any posi­tion, except for the ceil­ing. At this stage, the welder already knows how to cre­ate her­met­ic seams and weld two pipes that work under pres­sure.
  • 5th cat­e­go­ry — it is allowed to engage in more com­plex work, which is asso­ci­at­ed with mul­ti-posi­tion equip­ment and the pro­duc­tion of weld­ing vac­u­um tight joints.
  • 6th cat­e­go­ry — the most final and high­est class of this sphere. It allows you to work with equip­ment and parts of any com­plex­i­ty, even on gas or oil pipelines, which are con­sid­ered the most prof­itable.

Knowledge and skills

The welder must:

  • know and under­stand elec­tri­cal engi­neer­ing and meth­ods of melt­ing met­als with which he works;
  • under­stand the gas­es involved in antiox­i­dants;
  • be able to dis­tin­guish between the ways and basics of the oper­a­tion of the machines used;
  • adhere to safe­ty reg­u­la­tions;
  • have the­o­ret­i­cal knowl­edge in the field of physics and chem­istry.

Personal qualities

It is worth remind­ing once again that the work is very dif­fi­cult and requires high­ly pumped phys­i­cal qual­i­ties in advance. The welder must be strong and hardy, and most impor­tant­ly — com­plete­ly healthy. Over the years, work has a strong effect on well-being, so com­ing right away with some devi­a­tions is def­i­nite­ly not the most suit­able option.

Also, the spe­cial­ist must be dex­ter­ous and take on more respon­si­bil­i­ties, improve your skills and earn many times more than your col­leagues. Stress resis­tance and com­pet­i­tive­ness should be added to the lat­ter, but this is not so impor­tant, since the spe­cial­ty is in any case very in demand, and there is no com­pe­ti­tion as such.

There is no reward with­out patience, so this qual­i­ty also plays an impor­tant role. Per­son­al­ly, for your­self it is worth being per­sis­tent and hard­work­ing, because only the per­son him­self depends on how much he will earn.


In order to start work­ing you need to get at least 3 ranks. They are giv­en only at the end of spe­cial cours­es in the same voca­tion­al school or col­lege. There are even uni­ver­si­ties, high­er edu­ca­tion gives impres­sive guar­an­tees for becom­ing a per­son­nel man­ag­er in the future or get­ting the oppor­tu­ni­ty to orga­nize your own com­pa­ny.

If you enter imme­di­ate­ly after the end of the 9th grade, then the train­ing will last three years, and after the 11th — only two. After the 9th, you need to pass only the OGE and have a cer­tifi­cate with a min­i­mum score. Only in some insti­tu­tions require you to hand over some items addi­tion­al­ly. All this must be clar­i­fied on an indi­vid­ual basis. After the 11th, the algo­rithm is essen­tial­ly the same. Here is anoth­er pri­or­i­ty of this pro­fes­sion. There are no manda­to­ry exams for admis­sion to an edu­ca­tion­al insti­tu­tion. But it is worth remem­ber­ing that fur­ther it will be nec­es­sary to make a lot of effort, study­ing such sub­jects as physics, math­e­mat­ics and chem­istry, because it is with them that the whole the­o­ry will be con­nect­ed, which will need to be passed lat­er.

Yet there are train­ing cen­ters for the devel­op­ment of tech­ni­cal spe­cial­ties. They were cre­at­ed more for more mature indi­vid­u­als who decid­ed too late what they want to be in this life. Edu­ca­tion here is a lit­tle accel­er­at­ed by the divi­sion scheme into aca­d­e­m­ic hours of the­o­ry and prac­ti­cal train­ing. The price of the issue depends entire­ly on what kind of qual­i­fi­ca­tion the appli­cant has cho­sen.

You can choose among such spe­cial­ties: “Welder of elec­tric weld­ing and gas weld­ing works” and “Adjuster of weld­ing and gas-plas­ma cut­ting equip­ment”. The most expen­sive thing will be to study as an argonist.

Cer­ti­fi­ca­tion takes place imme­di­ate­ly after the com­ple­tion of the the­o­ret­i­cal and prac­ti­cal parts of the train­ing. Accord­ing to the rules for pass­ing exams, time is lim­it­ed, and all the giv­en the­o­ry is com­bined in one sin­gle tick­et. It includes:

  • tech­nol­o­gy of the weld­ing process;
  • first aid;
  • safe­ty pre­cau­tions at an indus­tri­al facil­i­ty and dur­ing the use of weld­ing.

Prac­tice is all the same tech­ni­cal exer­cis­es that pre­pare stu­dents for the work ahead. After suc­cess­ful­ly pass­ing all the exams, stu­dents can start work­ing with weld­ing and move up their own career lad­der. Fur­ther train­ing takes place dur­ing work addi­tion­al­ly.

If it turned out that the stu­dent failed to pass the exam the first time, then he has anoth­er chance after a month. Repeat­ed fail­ure forces you to lis­ten to the course again or aban­don the idea of ​​​​going in this direc­tion alto­geth­er.

Place of work

Vir­tu­al­ly any indus­try is a gold­mine for a welder.

The most com­mon sec­tors for prof­itable work:

  • con­struc­tion sites;
  • auto repair shops;
  • fac­to­ry shops and fac­to­ry pro­duc­tion;
  • com­pa­nies involved in the instal­la­tion and repair of sys­tem com­mu­ni­ca­tions;
  • agri­cul­tur­al sphere;
  • oil refin­ing and ship­ping.

Even if the welder does not have much expe­ri­ence, he can always find a job in one of the hous­ing and com­mu­nal ser­vices. Own­ers of pri­vate com­pa­nies and the ser­vice sec­tor are also always hap­py to have such spe­cial­ists.. It is from this stage that it is best to start your career, so that lat­er you can move on to some­thing more seri­ous. Jobs of the “welder-assem­bler” type are espe­cial­ly pleas­ing, because expe­ri­ence in such jobs is gained faster, the salary is fat­ter, etc. Most often, expe­ri­enced work­ers find them­selves in the indus­try at var­i­ous con­struc­tion sites.. Weld­ing of met­al struc­tures is the main work of a welder, and the main tech­nolo­gies used in his work are elec­tric arc weld­ing and a gas torch.

Begin­ners of 2–3 cat­e­gories work on a semi-auto­mat­ic device. This won­der­ful machine replaces the need to call in an expe­ri­enced welder every time a piece of work needs to be done. To under­stand exact­ly how this machine works, you just need to study the para­me­ters. Anoth­er mir­a­cle for begin­ners is work­ing on resis­tance weld­ing machines. Access to it is open from 2 to 5 cat­e­gories. The 3rd cat­e­go­ry also includes a welder of fiber optics, rein­forc­ing mesh­es and frames. There are also vacan­cies such as a welder-fit­ter. You should not score on such part-time jobs, because although they are dif­fi­cult, they are real­ly prof­itable. If a spe­cial­ist has reached the 5th cat­e­go­ry, he can try him­self as a lock­smith. In the same cat­e­go­ry, you can start weld­ing the pipeline and get a good prof­it for it.

Welders also often act as plumbers, as they are pre­pared to work with bronze, brass and cop­per.

How much does he earn in Russia?

Numer­ous ana­lyzes con­duct­ed by inde­pen­dent experts have repeat­ed­ly proved that the work of a welder is one of the high­est paid.

Here are the stats:

  • max­i­mum salary — up to 150 thou­sand rubles;
  • aver­age salary — 50–60 thou­sand rubles;
  • min­i­mum wage — 20–30 thou­sand rubles.

You can bring even greater clar­i­ty to the pic­ture if you look at salaries by cat­e­go­ry:

  • sec­ond — 35 thou­sand;
  • third - 40 thou­sand;
  • fourth - 55 thou­sand;
  • fifth - up to 70 thou­sand;
  • sixth - up to 90 thou­sand.

It is clear that at the very begin­ning of a career it is dif­fi­cult to get a decent income. But cus­tomers are ready to pay the max­i­mum salary to those work­ers who will be uni­ver­sal. They don’t care what your offi­cial rank is. For them, the most impor­tant thing is the qual­i­ty of their work. A skilled work­er will always earn many times more, and right­ly so.

In order to make good mon­ey, you need to devel­op, move for­ward. For those who have received high­er edu­ca­tion, the doors to big busi­ness are always open. You can hire a small staff of work­ers or work on a self-employ­ment basis.

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