Properties of thinking: types and characteristics

What is «good» and what is «bad»? The answer to these questions is not always obvious, everyone has their own view of a particular event. It all depends on the type of thinking of each person. We will talk about thinking in this material.

What is thinking?

The way a person perceives reality depends on what thoughts live in the head. In psychology, there is the following definition of thinking: it is a process, as a result of which the systematic relations of the environment are modeled.

It should be noted that thinking cannot be learned, it cannot be memorized from textbooks, thinking is the ability to understand what is happening around, given to man by consciousness and millennia of evolution.

Basic properties

We see only what we personally see in each specific situation. This is the merit of thinking, and everyone has their own, unique. The only thing that, perhaps, is the same for all sane people is the properties of thinking. In psychology, there are seven main directions in which our thoughts go.

  1. Purposefulness. Every thought process has an end goal. We always try to find an answer to any question posed. And it doesn’t always have to be a matter of life and death.
  2. Logic. Even female logic, contrary to jokes and anecdotes, is always there. Of course, it is not always true, understandable to others, but it is, nevertheless, present in the thought process.
  3. Development. Undeveloped thinking is characteristic of babies and people with mental disabilities. People with undeveloped thinking are quite happy if their primitive natural needs are satisfied — for food, sleep.
  4. The ability to form concepts. To compare and characterize a phenomenon, a thing, a situation is an obligatory property of human thinking.
  5. Thinking is incapable of being objective. Feelings and experiences of a particular person always interfere in this process. Therefore, it is not necessary to say that someone thinks correctly, and someone does not. Everyone thinks in their own right way.
  6. Positivity / Negativity. For some, everything is exclusively in white, for others — in black, it all depends on how a person relates to what is happening around. Some are able to find positive emotions even in the most difficult and unpleasant situation. Others are purposefully looking for a catch at their own wedding.
  7. Orientation in time, linearity. Some only look forward, while others look back. If the former are thinking about how to get out of a particular situation, the latter are trying to understand why this happened and what they did wrong.


Types and their characteristics


Psychologists generally divide thinking into three classes of thinking:

  • visual and effective;
  • visual-figurative;
  • verbal-logical.

Such a division is built according to the genetic principle, while determining the various degrees of development of thinking that occur sequentially.

Visual-effective implies that a person observes real objects, animals, people and comprehends the relationship between them in a particular situation.

Visual-figurative involves the creation of ideas about a certain situation or images. That is a person uses visual images through their figurative representations.

Verbal-logical involves the use of logical knowledge about a particular event, object, being. And thus a person comprehends the essential patterns and unobservable relationships of real events or objects.

Besides, thinking is divided into visual and verbal, that is, it is easier for someone to see it once, for another it is enough to hear it. It is also divided into practical and theoreticalthat is, for someone “the law is not written”, he is looking for all kinds of ways to solve this or that problem, for others it is important to comply with the norms and rules that they themselves develop.

    The following antipodes are associated with intuitive and analytical thinking. The first proceeds quickly, is not divided into separate clear stages, is little realized. The second is long in time, divided into clear stages, concretely represented in the human head.

    But no matter what type of thinking you are, it is important to be able to start the process of comparison in your head, it helps to find similar and different properties of objects, situations, which in the future will certainly help to solve the problem.

    Two more integral parts of the thought process are analysis and synthesis. At first glance, these are opposite concepts, the first involves dividing something whole into parts for a better understanding, while the second, on the contrary, allows you to move from the particular to the general. But both processes are important for thinking — any sound activity of thought must be exactly analytically synthesized.

    Although, on the other hand, the process of thinking is purely personal, and often it depends on the character of a person. Some people have a good mindset, while others have a lazy mindset. Who thinks judiciously, who is impulsive. It is also divided into feminine and masculine, civilized and wild, flexible and straightforward. Yes, and it happens at different levels.


Some thoughts swarm in the depths of our consciousness, others on the surface, others remain somewhere in the middle, there are most often those that appeared due to the stereotypes that surround us. A variety of, but most often controlled and well-recognised thoughts break out. But in the farthest corner hides what appeared with us almost unconsciously. This is the base on which all our subsequent thought processes then begin to be based.

And at the same time, not any thinking helps to live. Sometimes it can get in the way. Sometimes you need to act quickly, relying on your own experience, reflexes developed over the years, and the thought process slows down the simple solution of important problems. The category of «harmful» thoughts also includes unnecessary, negative, and of course, annoying. They have no place in our heads at all and we should get rid of them.


Оставьте комментарий

Ваш адрес email не будет опубликован.