the main properties of thought and correct thinking in psychology, Does purposefulness belong to the properties?

Properties of thinking: types and characteristics

What is “good” and what is “bad”? The answer to these ques­tions is not always obvi­ous, every­one has their own view of a par­tic­u­lar event. It all depends on the type of think­ing of each per­son. We will talk about think­ing in this mate­r­i­al.

What is thinking?

The way a per­son per­ceives real­i­ty depends on what thoughts live in the head. In psy­chol­o­gy, there is the fol­low­ing def­i­n­i­tion of think­ing: it is a process, as a result of which the sys­tem­at­ic rela­tions of the envi­ron­ment are mod­eled.

It should be not­ed that think­ing can­not be learned, it can­not be mem­o­rized from text­books, think­ing is the abil­i­ty to under­stand what is hap­pen­ing around, giv­en to man by con­scious­ness and mil­len­nia of evo­lu­tion.

Basic properties

We see only what we per­son­al­ly see in each spe­cif­ic sit­u­a­tion. This is the mer­it of think­ing, and every­one has their own, unique. The only thing that, per­haps, is the same for all sane peo­ple is the prop­er­ties of think­ing. In psy­chol­o­gy, there are sev­en main direc­tions in which our thoughts go.

  1. Pur­pose­ful­ness. Every thought process has an end goal. We always try to find an answer to any ques­tion posed. And it does­n’t always have to be a mat­ter of life and death.
  2. Log­ic. Even female log­ic, con­trary to jokes and anec­dotes, is always there. Of course, it is not always true, under­stand­able to oth­ers, but it is, nev­er­the­less, present in the thought process.
  3. Devel­op­ment. Unde­vel­oped think­ing is char­ac­ter­is­tic of babies and peo­ple with men­tal dis­abil­i­ties. Peo­ple with unde­vel­oped think­ing are quite hap­py if their prim­i­tive nat­ur­al needs are sat­is­fied — for food, sleep.
  4. The abil­i­ty to form con­cepts. To com­pare and char­ac­ter­ize a phe­nom­e­non, a thing, a sit­u­a­tion is an oblig­a­tory prop­er­ty of human think­ing.
  5. Think­ing is inca­pable of being objec­tive. Feel­ings and expe­ri­ences of a par­tic­u­lar per­son always inter­fere in this process. There­fore, it is not nec­es­sary to say that some­one thinks cor­rect­ly, and some­one does not. Every­one thinks in their own right way.
  6. Pos­i­tiv­i­ty / Neg­a­tiv­i­ty. For some, every­thing is exclu­sive­ly in white, for oth­ers — in black, it all depends on how a per­son relates to what is hap­pen­ing around. Some are able to find pos­i­tive emo­tions even in the most dif­fi­cult and unpleas­ant sit­u­a­tion. Oth­ers are pur­pose­ful­ly look­ing for a catch at their own wed­ding.
  7. Ori­en­ta­tion in time, lin­ear­i­ty. Some only look for­ward, while oth­ers look back. If the for­mer are think­ing about how to get out of a par­tic­u­lar sit­u­a­tion, the lat­ter are try­ing to under­stand why this hap­pened and what they did wrong.

Types and their characteristics

Psy­chol­o­gists gen­er­al­ly divide think­ing into three class­es of think­ing:

  • visu­al and effec­tive;
  • visu­al-fig­u­ra­tive;
  • ver­bal-log­i­cal.

Such a divi­sion is built accord­ing to the genet­ic prin­ci­ple, while deter­min­ing the var­i­ous degrees of devel­op­ment of think­ing that occur sequen­tial­ly.

Visu­al-effec­tive implies that a per­son observes real objects, ani­mals, peo­ple and com­pre­hends the rela­tion­ship between them in a par­tic­u­lar sit­u­a­tion.

Visu­al-fig­u­ra­tive involves the cre­ation of ideas about a cer­tain sit­u­a­tion or images. That is a per­son uses visu­al images through their fig­u­ra­tive rep­re­sen­ta­tions.

Ver­bal-log­i­cal involves the use of log­i­cal knowl­edge about a par­tic­u­lar event, object, being. And thus a per­son com­pre­hends the essen­tial pat­terns and unob­serv­able rela­tion­ships of real events or objects.

Besides, think­ing is divid­ed into visu­al and ver­bal, that is, it is eas­i­er for some­one to see it once, for anoth­er it is enough to hear it. It is also divid­ed into prac­ti­cal and the­o­ret­i­calthat is, for some­one “the law is not writ­ten”, he is look­ing for all kinds of ways to solve this or that prob­lem, for oth­ers it is impor­tant to com­ply with the norms and rules that they them­selves devel­op.

    The fol­low­ing antipodes are asso­ci­at­ed with intu­itive and ana­lyt­i­cal think­ing. The first pro­ceeds quick­ly, is not divid­ed into sep­a­rate clear stages, is lit­tle real­ized. The sec­ond is long in time, divid­ed into clear stages, con­crete­ly rep­re­sent­ed in the human head.

    But no mat­ter what type of think­ing you are, it is impor­tant to be able to start the process of com­par­i­son in your head, it helps to find sim­i­lar and dif­fer­ent prop­er­ties of objects, sit­u­a­tions, which in the future will cer­tain­ly help to solve the prob­lem.

    Two more inte­gral parts of the thought process are analy­sis and syn­the­sis. At first glance, these are oppo­site con­cepts, the first involves divid­ing some­thing whole into parts for a bet­ter under­stand­ing, while the sec­ond, on the con­trary, allows you to move from the par­tic­u­lar to the gen­er­al. But both process­es are impor­tant for think­ing — any sound activ­i­ty of thought must be exact­ly ana­lyt­i­cal­ly syn­the­sized.

    Although, on the oth­er hand, the process of think­ing is pure­ly per­son­al, and often it depends on the char­ac­ter of a per­son. Some peo­ple have a good mind­set, while oth­ers have a lazy mind­set. Who thinks judi­cious­ly, who is impul­sive. It is also divid­ed into fem­i­nine and mas­cu­line, civ­i­lized and wild, flex­i­ble and straight­for­ward. Yes, and it hap­pens at dif­fer­ent lev­els.

Some thoughts swarm in the depths of our con­scious­ness, oth­ers on the sur­face, oth­ers remain some­where in the mid­dle, there are most often those that appeared due to the stereo­types that sur­round us. A vari­ety of, but most often con­trolled and well-recog­nised thoughts break out. But in the far­thest cor­ner hides what appeared with us almost uncon­scious­ly. This is the base on which all our sub­se­quent thought process­es then begin to be based.

And at the same time, not any think­ing helps to live. Some­times it can get in the way. Some­times you need to act quick­ly, rely­ing on your own expe­ri­ence, reflex­es devel­oped over the years, and the thought process slows down the sim­ple solu­tion of impor­tant prob­lems. The cat­e­go­ry of “harm­ful” thoughts also includes unnec­es­sary, neg­a­tive, and of course, annoy­ing. They have no place in our heads at all and we should get rid of them.

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