October 26, 2020, 14:10
A stroke is an acute disorder of cerebral circulation, which is characterized by the sudden onset of neurological symptoms that persist for more than a day. Today, this pathology is an acute medical and social problem, leading to disability and death of the population. What to do with a stroke? How to define it? We asked for advice Christina Bashuktherapist and doctor of functional diagnostics.
Every year, on October 29, World Health Organization celebrates Stroke Awareness Day. A great opportunity to learn more about this condition in order to maintain your health and the health of your loved ones for many years to come.
According to official statistics, the prevalence of stroke in Ukraine averages 280 cases per 100,000 population, which is significantly higher than in other European countries.
The main risk factors for stroke include: arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus and other cardiovascular diseases, obesity, elevated levels of cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins in the blood test, sedentary lifestyle, smoking and alcohol abuse, age over 50 years.
Types of stroke
There are three main types of stroke:
- ischemic (about 80% of all cases);
- hemorrhagic (about 19%);
- venous (less than 1%).
Let’s talk about the most common types. Ischemic stroke most often occurs due to blockage of the arteries by a thrombus or atherosclerotic changes in blood vessels. By the way, in patients with moderate and severe course of the new coronavirus infection COVID19, the risk of thrombosis increases. The insidiousness of this type of stroke is that loss of consciousness may not occur and clinical manifestations may not be recognized immediately.
Hemorrhagic stroke occurs due to rupture of the vessel and the occurrence of intracerebral hematoma, most often against the background of high blood pressure.
How to recognize a stroke
Symptoms of a stroke can be very diverse:
- feeling numb
- disorientation in time and space,
- loss of consciousness.
There is a mnemonic rule HIT. for diagnosing stroke at the prehospital stage.
- W — Smile. Ask the person to smile. In violation of cerebral circulation, the smile will be asymmetrical.
- D — Movement. Raise both arms or both legs at the same time. One of the limbs will lag behind the other.
- A Articulation. Diction will be impaired, speech may be slowed down or sound unusual.
- R — Solution. If there are violations in one or more of the above points, a decision must be made to call an ambulance.
Remember this simple rule and perhaps this knowledge will save someone’s life.
Before the ambulance arrives, be sure to write down the time of onset of symptoms, try to measure blood pressure, temperature, blood glucose levels and do not leave a sick person unattended!
The main methods of stroke prevention include:
- treatment of major diseases (arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, etc.),
- control of blood pressure and biochemical analysis of blood (cholesterol and low density lipoproteins),
- complete cessation of smoking;
- regular physical activity;
- rational nutrition: the so-called Mediterranean diet deserves special attention;
- antithrombotic therapy for medical reasons.
Stay healthy, take care of yourself and your loved ones!