October 11, 2017, 04:17 PM
At 20, and even at 30, many women prefer not to think about menopause. It seems that this will not happen so quickly and, it can concern anyone, but not you. Does it look like the truth? But as statistics show, the issue of early menopause concerns many. Who is at risk?
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First, let’s look at when the age of menopause is considered normal. Normal boundaries are 45–55 years and 50 years. If menstruation stops earlier, that is, at 40–45 years old, this situation is called early menopause. And if the functions of the ovaries are turned off at the age of less than 40 years, this is premature ovarian failure.
You can’t fool nature
But most often after 40 years, every woman begins to gradually decrease the function of the ovaries and the hormonal background changes. The ability to conceive decreases, then the cycle goes astray, then the “critical days” disappear altogether. All this does not happen immediately and not suddenly, but over a fairly long period.
According to statistics, about 30% of women during menopause do not feel almost any unpleasant symptoms.
The body, accustomed to cyclical work during the reproductive age, begins to feel discomfort and “worry”. The female hormones estrogen and progesterone affect not only childbearing, therefore, a decrease in their level in one way or another affects all body systems. A range of strange sensations lies in wait for us: insomnia, irritability, decreased libido, dryness of the mucous membranes and skin. Metabolic disorders can provoke the appearance of excess weight and problems with bones and blood vessels.
Doctors distinguish several important stages of menopause:
➤ phase of the menopausal transition. The hormonal balance is disturbed, the number of follicles in the ovary decreases, ovulation occurs less and less. The cycle is broken, the first hot tides appear. This period begins at an average of 45–47 years and lasts up to 4–6 years — before the onset of menopause. It is important not to miss this time and have time to pick up and start taking menopausal hormone therapy (MHT).
➤ Menopause — cessation of menstruation. Its date is confirmed only after 12 months, as there are cases when “critical days” stop for several months, and then return again.
➤ Postmenopause. It lasts from the onset of menopause until the age of 65–70. At this time, all the most unpleasant symptoms — mood jumps, excess weight appears, problems with the heart, pressure, memory, etc. begin.
Doesn’t depend on us
True, there are factors that we, unfortunately for the majority, cannot influence in any way:
Genetics. In mothers and daughters, the age of onset of menopause coincides in almost 44–63%.
Menarche age. As shown by the InterLACE meta-analysis, there is an association between the age of the first menses and the age of menopause. If the menarche was early (before 11 years), most likely, the menopause will be late.
Nationality. Menopause occurs earlier in African women (48 years old), Hispanic women (at 49 years old), Asian women (50 years old) and later in European and Australian women (51–52 years old). Lifestyle. In women who smoke, ovarian function is turned off earlier and menopause occurs.
- Remember your pedigree. Did your grandmother or mother have type 2 diabetes? In this case, it is worth regularly taking blood tests for sugar.
- Once a year, do a test for thyroid-stimulating hormone, it will help to detect problems in the thyroid gland in time.
- If you have ever had a period of amenorrhea and you at risk osteoporosis, get densitometry, a test that helps determine bone density.
- During menopause, the risk of oncology increases, so once a year it is necessary to take a smear from the cervix for oncocytology and a stool test for the likelihood of rectal cancer. Mammography: from 40 to 50 — once every 2 years, after 50 years — once a year. Regularly — ultrasound of the uterus and ovaries.
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The opinion of the editors may not coincide with the opinion of the author of the article.