March 12, 2016, 2:41 p.m
What is the danger of being overweight and excessive thinness? Who needs to lose weight without delay or, conversely, start gaining weight? Listen to the opinion of an experienced nutritionist
The formula usually used to estimate weight is body mass index (BMI). Body weight in kilograms should be divided by height in meters squared (kg/m2). Result from 18.5 to 25 — this is the norm. BMI less than 30 — admissible completenessa, above 30 — obesity. But you need to keep in mind: determining weight by BMI is not ideal, but only an indicative indicator. And that’s why.
Who are the skinny fat guys
There are many people who are quite slender, with a normal BMI, and at the same time with an excess of body fat (in particular, in the abdomen). Doctors call them skinny fat people. Such latent obesity is no less dangerous than explicit. Therefore, now experts are developing new classification. And soon, when diagnosing obesity, not only BMI will be taken into account, but also the distribution of fat mass in the body, as well as changes in indicators in the biochemical blood test. If a person with a normal BMI has excess fat in the abdomen and changes in metabolism, he will be diagnosed with obesity. If the BMI is elevated, but there are no metabolic disorders and the fat is evenly distributed, then this will be regarded as the norm.
Fat but healthy
Is fullness healthy? Yes. But only if a person goes in for sports, he does not have metabolic disorders, and his excess weight is due to an excess of muscle (and not adipose) tissue. By the way, sometimes a small fat reserve can even be useful. According to a study conducted in Israel, people with IMT 25–27 live longer than those whose weight is normal or in short supply. And scientists from New Orleans found that patients who initially have a lower BMI are more likely to die from strokes and heart attacks.
When you need to lose weight urgently
What are the symptoms that need urgent weight loss measures? And how to lose weight correctly? The main warning signs are waist circumference in women over 81 cm (for men — more than 94 cm), dyspnea during physical activity, joint pain and heaviness in the legs increased blood pressure, increased glucose, cholesterol and uric acid in the blood. In 95% of cases, the cause of excess weight is imbalance of consumption and energy costs. That is, a person eats more than he can spend.
To correct this imbalance:
● Move more. Hiking, morning exercises, classes in the gym — any activity is important.
● Establish a diet. Ideally, there should be 3 main meals and 2 snacks.
● Limit sweets. Fast carbohydrates can be allowed no more than 1 time per week. Keeping a food diary is good for monitoring.
If weight is in short supply
Too low weight is also bad. BMI less than 18.5 regarded by doctors as exhaustion. 45 kg is the weight when a teenage girl starts menstruating. Conversely, if a woman has lost a lot of weight and weighs less than 45 kg, menstruation stops (amenorrhea). In this case, doctors are required to refer the patient to an endocrinologist in order to exclude serious diseases.
What to do to get better
At underweight life expectancy decreases, the risk of heart disease and osteoporosis increases, cholelithiasis develops, hair falls out, skin fades … What to do to gain weight?
● Start eating regularly. If you cannot eat normal meals 3–4 times a day, eat smaller meals more often (7–8 times a day).
● Connect power loads. It is power (exercises with dumbbells, training in the gym), and not aerobic. Enough 2–3 times a week.
● Adjust your diet. Carbohydrates and proteins must be at every meal.
The opinion of the editors may not coincide with the opinion of the author of the article.