February is the month of love. And the point is not only on February 14, but also in the fact that in the last harsh month of winter, you especially want to bathe in love and share it with the whole world. BURO. talked to young lovers about their understanding of this feeling, changes in relationships during the quarantine period and joint plans for this year.
What is love in 2021?
Since everything is developing very quickly, and access to information, movement, communication and all other aspects of life is now extremely easy, one must understand that the only way to live is to change and develop. Including in relationships.
Lizka remains my love in 2021, nothing has changed here.
What are the priorities now when choosing a partner for today’s youth?
It is difficult to be responsible for all the youth, but support, transparency, honesty, devotion, loyalty and sincerity are important to me.
I regret to note that joint viewing of Tiktok videos is gaining unreasonable importance.
How has your relationship changed during the pandemic?
Nothing much has changed for me. We are together every day: we just don’t like to part.
In a pandemic, our relationship was armed with antibodies.
What is the key to a successful relationship today?
Communication: to talk, to hear a partner, to try to understand and give what the other person wants, and to be able to pacify your ego.
Separate profiles on Netflix.
What are your main joint plans for 2021?
More long, unusual and cozy trips. And also more sports and work!
We’ve already started preparing for the Iron Man duo playthrough, so join us guys!
What is love in 2021?
Love approaches the absolute sincerity, and less and less obligations in this word. A hundred years ago, people “had” to love someone, but today we love freely, without looking back.
Love is a feeling that does not depend on time: people have always loved and, I hope, will love. She existed and helped everyone in the most difficult times. But it is in 2021 that the meaning of love is enormous — everything is built on it.
What are the priorities now when choosing a partner for today’s youth?
For me, the main thing is to make each other better and get pure pleasure from it.
What is most striking now is cultural awareness, erudition and, as always, a sense of humor and charisma.
How has your relationship changed during the pandemic?
We started spending most of our time together.
We have become even closer! It would seem much closer, but no, and this is possible. We spend almost all the time together, in the same space, and during this time we have learned to feel each other better.
What is the key to a successful relationship today?
Today and always — sincerity and openness.
Trust, honesty and sensitivity. And, of course, love is nowhere without it.
Does the partner meet your main expectations?
Taisiya exceeded any of my expectations.
Marco is the most amazing person I have ever met in my life. It is as if a Bengal fire is burning in it, sparkling and charging everyone around. Maybe it’s because he’s a foreigner…
What are your main joint plans for 2021?
Explore the whole world together.
Create and do different projects together. Travel, get to know new cities, learn something new. Also, one of the goals is to devote more time to talking with each other, because in all the cases we forget what a charm it is to talk with an intelligent person. I just love our conversations, we can chat all night, like in childhood at a friend’s sleepover. I also plan to learn Serbian, Marko’s native language, so that I can keep up the conversation when we finally go there.
What is love in 2021?
I just want to quote these lines: “Love is long-suffering, merciful, love does not envy, love does not exalt itself, is not proud, does not behave violently, does not seek its own, is not irritated, does not think evil, does not rejoice in iniquity, but rejoices in the truth; covers everything, believes everything, hopes everything, endures everything. Love never ceases … «They are always relevant.
The concept of love remains the same as before. Falling in love is a seed from which love can grow later. Love is the result of mutual respect and mercy towards each other.
What are the priorities in choosing a partner for today’s youth?
What is important to me is the mind, potential, the presence of a favorite thing, the ability to understand another.
And for me — intelligence, intelligence, the presence of a favorite thing, caring and respect for women.
How has your relationship changed during the pandemic?
We remembered how hard it is for us without each other. The longest separation before quarantine was Dina’s trip to Stanford University for a two-month summer course. During this study, it was alarming: she is in America, we have different time zones. Quarantine has been more relaxed. But without Dina it was difficult. I realized that I didn’t want to be separated from her for so long anymore.
Quarantine is one of the reasons why we got married in the summer of 2020: we realized especially acutely that we cannot live without each other.
What is the key to a successful relationship today?
Dina and Dima:
Love, understanding and mutual respect.
Does the partner meet your main expectations?
The first thing I noticed was Dima’s pleasant and energetic manner of communication and gallantry. And he is also very caring.
Dina has a unique sense of humor, interest in new things and modesty. We both wanted a partner who was loving, understanding and inspiring. And so it turned out.
What are your main joint plans for 2021?
The main goal for 2021 is to inspire each other, support and love even more.
Not only to keep the existing ones, but also to build new, even stronger spiritual threads.
Facts remain facts: used pads will survive not only us, but also our great-grandchildren. All because they decompose for hundreds of thousands of years. But what to do? How to replace pads and tampons if you want to live more ecologically? We know the answer!
Despite the fact that menstrual cups have existed for a long time, many people do not even know about them. It is gratifying that recently they are becoming more and more popular, and interest in them goes far beyond zero-waste communities. Let’s figure out together what it is and what are its advantages.
What is the menstrual cup made of?
This device is a small container or barrier that is placed in the vagina to collect discharge. They are soft and flexible, disposable (which is not very environmentally friendly, but convenient), and reusable, made of latex, medical silicone or other material.
There are small and large sizes, and also have different forms of «tail». And basically they are all the same.
How to use a menstrual cup
Everything is simple, and not very:
Before the first use, boil the menstrual cup in clean water for five minutes.
Before the procedure, wash your hands thoroughly.
For insertion, turn the menstrual cup in one of the convenient ways and, folded, insert it into the vagina, where it should fully open to its original state.
The cup should be completely, together with the tail, located inside the vagina. If the tail is in the way, it can be shortened.
As it fills, or after a maximum of 12 hours, remove the cup. This should be done like this: gently squeeze the bottom and slowly pull the bowl out. If you cannot reach the menstrual cup, slowly and carefully pull it up by the tail, and only then grab the bottom.
Pour the secretion into the toilet, and then wash the bowl first with cold, then with warm water with a means for intimate hygiene.
After these procedures, the cup can be inserted again.
After use, sterilize the bowl in boiling water and store in a cloth bag or a special container.
Advantages of menstrual cups
Here’s why you should replace tampons and pads with a menstrual cup:
It is economical. Menstrual cups made of medical silicone with proper use and cleaning can be used for up to 10 years! They are not cheap, but this is a one-time purchase that will pay for itself with long-term use.
It is ecological. A menstrual cup reduces waste in the form of used tampons and pads. Did you know that you use over 10,000 intimate hygiene products in your lifetime? They are sent to the landfill because they are not recycled and pollute the environment. And there is no such problem with the menstrual cup — you can always hand it in for recycling.
Convenient for trips. No need to carry around a pack of pads or tampons. A menstrual cup takes up much less space in a suitcase.
Comfortable. A menstrual cup is more convenient than pads, because it does not create a compress effect, does not cause irritation or diaper rash. And it is also more convenient than a tampon, which can cause a feeling of dryness.
Safely. Medical silicone, from which menstrual cups are made, is hypoallergenic and does not affect the microflora of the vagina. And scientists have not found a connection between toxic shock and the use of menstrual cups, so they are much safer than tampons.
Convenient to use. The menstrual cup is wider than tampons, so you won’t need to run to the bathroom as often: it can be changed no more than once every 12 hours. Menstrual cups are also suitable for those who do sports. Unlike gaskets, they are completely invisible.
Disadvantages of menstrual cups
Each device has its drawbacks, and here are some that you may encounter after starting to use a menstrual cup:
It is not always possible to correctly change the menstrual cup outside the home. It must be washed after use, and not all toilets have a sink in the cabin.
You also need to learn how to insert and remove the menstrual cup, which also takes a little time.
Just two disadvantages against six advantages. The choice seems obvious. But these are not all ways to replace tampons and pads. Let’s move on.
Reusable (fabric) pads
This is the perfect tool for those who do not know how to insert a menstrual cup, but really want to take care of the planet even during menstruation. A reusable pad is not at all a diaper or a rag, as in the USSR, but a modern and high-tech product.
What are reusable pads made of?
Basically, reusable pads are made of cotton and fleece, some have a special membrane fabric inside. It does not allow moisture to pass through, but it «breathes» perfectly, as a result of which the pad does not steam, absorbs well and is not visible under clothes.
There are both daily and coarse pads for heavy discharge.
How to use cloth pads
Everything is simple: as usual. They are attached to the linen with the help of buttons, and after use they are folded into an envelope, placed in a special bag and taken away for washing. They do not smell because the discharge dries.
After that, just wash the pads and dry them, and then you can use them again.
Advantages of reusable pads
Comfortable to wear and use. Cloth pads are much nicer to the body than disposable pads. They are made of natural materials, and inside there are several layers of fabric, so the pads really breathe, do not let liquids pass and are usually very soft.
There is no smell. Menstrual secretions dry up instead of accumulating, so that we end up with an odorless stain on the cloth.
There is no greenhouse effect. An ordinary gasket does not «breathe», so a greenhouse effect occurs and a nutrient environment is created for the reproduction of bacteria. Just imagine: this horror comes into contact with the mucous membrane of the genital organs and the bacteria can even spread throughout the body. Terrible! But the fabric pad breathes perfectly, so there will be no such effect.
Ecologically. Reusable pads are not made from plastic or petroleum products, and for sterility, they are also disinfected before sale. They are not only useful for the mucous membrane, but also last up to five years, and after use they can be safely disposed of.
Economically. Cloth pads are more expensive than ordinary pads, but they are well worth it, because you don’t need to buy a new pack every month! You will save significantly and can spend money on something more useful or pleasant.
It turns out that there are a lot of convenient ways to do without pads and tampons during menstruation. So don’t be afraid to experiment.
The opinion of the editors may not coincide with the opinion of the author of the article.
For many, autumn is not only about yellow foliage, oversized sweaters and pumpkin lattes, but also about the start of the school year. Therefore, today we are talking about 5 useful publics on the VKontakte social network, which will be appreciated by schoolchildren, students and even some teachers. Subscribe!
The YouTube channel of the same name has a public on VKontakte. In short videos, the authors explain complex topics in simple language and share interesting facts. If you want to show off your knowledge in front of friends and classmates on occasion, you are here.
In this public you will find translations of articles from foreign media. Voting is held several times a week: readers themselves choose which publication will be released next. Here you can definitely learn a lot of new and interesting things without spending a lot of time on an independent translation.
Perhaps the favorite educational video format for modern users is short educational videos. It is worth looking into Obrazovach just for them. News from the world of science is served here with the help of video memes. Maybe they will not become a source of deep comprehensive knowledge, but they will definitely amuse.
Expulsion is the main fear of any student. However, this blog is not about that at all. Life memes, funny pictures and short stories will cheer you up even at the most boring lecture, and the title will become an additional motivation to pass the session on time.
THE LECTURES FROM TOP UNIVERSITIES
If you have always dreamed of studying abroad, but did not have the opportunity to get it, we have good news! In this public, you can get completely free of charge with lectures that are read at leading universities in Europe and the USA.
Recently, in psychology, in economics, in the field of self-development, as well as in other areas of human life, the Pareto law has gained great popularity. This rule allows a person to spend a minimum amount of effort, but get the maximum result. At the same time, this formula works both in the forward and reverse directions, therefore, often devoting a huge amount of time and effort to a particular task, we get a very small effective return.
What is it and how to apply the rule in real life? How did the Pareto principle come about? Who is the author of this law? Read more about this in our material.
What it is?
The Pareto principle is a law that will help you establish the level of effectiveness of what you are doing. Often the Pareto principle is also called the 20/80 rule. If you try to explain the Pareto law in simple words, then its essence is that 20% of your efforts bring 80% of the result and vice versa: 80% of the efforts give only 20% of the final result. This theory allows you to give preference to the most effective resources that will bring the greatest result, thereby not wasting your energy and time. The Pareto efficiency system is very popular in psychology.
The author of this law is an Italian economist. He identifies several sources and modes of manifestation of the principle. Let’s consider some of them:
This principle has shown itself quite effectively in practical work due to the fact that a fairly large number of factors are just ordinaryamong them there are only a few important for our life;
a significant part of the forces applied to solve the problem does not give us the desired result;
the visible part of life is not always completebecause often there are a large number of details and moments hidden from a person;
usually our plans do not correspond to realitybecause regardless of what we planned, in the end, in most cases, we get a different result;
a large amount of our activity does not lead to a direct result, but is just a waste of time.
The Pareto principle has a serious scientific justification, and is not just built on conjectures and reflections.
The 20/80 effect was named after the author of this law, the Italian scientist Vilfredo Pareto (1848–1923). By his occupation, he was an economist, so the invention of the formula was accompanied by the derivation of coefficients, the construction of graphs and histograms. The principle, popular to this day, was noticed in the process of studying the financial and economic situation of the inhabitants of England at that time. In the course of his research, economist Vilfredo Pareto noticed that all the country’s money (as well as other material goods) among the citizens of England is distributed rather unevenly. Moreover, such a bias occurs in such a way that most of the money is in the possession of a smaller number of people and vice versa: a smaller amount of material wealth is distributed among the majority of the people. Thus, the base ratio is not equivalent.
If you go into the details of Pareto’s research, it can be noted that he discovered 2 main criteria.
Only 20% of all material wealth belongs to 80% of people, while 10% of the population accounts for 65%, and 5% — 50% of wealth. This distribution suggests that the country’s economic system is heterogeneous.
The second criterion, identified by Pareto, says that such a situation is typical not only for the economy of England. The 20/80 principle can be applied in any country and in any given period of time. And also the law is relevant not only for the economy, but also for other areas of activity.
Based on such a complex and large-scale work that was done by the scientist, a special graph was modeled and built called «indifference curves». The main purpose of this graph is to show how many items a person can give up in order to buy one well-defined item.
And also Vilfredo Pareto invented an innovative factor that helps determine the level of human well-being. It lies in the fact that in itself an increase in financial and material wealth is a rather positive phenomenon, since in this case some people are in gain, but at the same time one cannot call losers. In order to achieve an optimal economic (or any other) state, it is necessary to achieve a situation where the redistribution of material wealth can improve the condition of one particular person, but at the same time this fact will not negatively affect the condition of another.
Application and examples
To date, the Pareto law has been successfully used to solve a particular problem, to make decisions in various areas of human life: in sales, in management, in trade, in time management, in the economy. One way or another, but the law assumes its unquestioning implementation. Consider ways to improve your own life using the Pareto law.
Learning a new language is the goal of quite a lot of people. At the same time, for many, it may seem unattainable, even though knowledge of a foreign language can advance a person both in professional and personal life. If we turn to statistics, we must understand that on average one language contains about 1 million words. Accordingly, it is rather difficult to study such amount of new information.
However, if we are guided by the Pareto principle, we can conclude that knowledge of absolutely all the words of a particular language is not necessary. It is important to know only a few hundred or thousands of basic words that are used more often than others. Thus, the task of learning a foreign language becomes much easier. And if you master such a small amount of words (20% of the total), you will be able to communicate at a fairly high level with native speakers.
On the other hand, learning just a million words is a rather unproductive exercise, since, with a high degree of probability, you will not use most of them. You will only waste a lot of energy and strength on activities that will not bring you much benefit.
Everyone tries to become the best version of themselves: read a lot of books, plan their day correctly, successfully achieve goals. However, we often set impossible goals for ourselves, and in the course of self-improvement attempts, we experience a feeling of burnout, as a result, we refuse to achieve goals at all. At the same time, if you know the Pareto principle and skillfully apply it, you can avoid such situations. For example, Instead of reading 10 books a month, set yourself the goal of reading just one. Thus, you will get rid of unnecessary stress and gain much more knowledge than if you tried to read everything at once.
You will remember information from one read book much better, and you will be able to apply the acquired knowledge in practice.
Many people dream of starting to eat right, go on a diet or stop snacking late at night, but not everyone succeeds. The whole point is that most people try to adjust their diet at the same time: give up everything sweet, starchy and fatty. Such drastic measures often cause disruptions. At the same time, if you wisely approach the process of changing your diet, using the Pareto principle, you can achieve your goal in the shortest possible time and without much effort. So, you only need to change your diet by 20%.
It is important to determine which foods you will stop using. So, supporters of the Paleo diet often refuse dairy and flour products, vegetarians — from meat, you can still refuse sweet or fatty, and so on. In this case, you do not have to go on strict and restrictive detox diets or spend a lot of money on expensive products.
Change just 20% of your diet and you will get 80% of the desired result.
The Pareto principle is also suitable for those who want to include regular exercise in their lives. However, in order to get in shape, lose weight and build muscle mass, it is not necessary to work out every day, spend money on subscriptions to the fitness room, and lift heavy weights. Just like with other areas of life, in sports, you need to change only 20% to achieve maximum results. For example, instead of doing an hour-long daily workout, you can do a light 20-minute jog.
In this way, with a very small amount of energy and effort, you can get an impressive result. At the same time, sports are recommended to be combined with a revision of your diet according to the principle described above.
In addition, you should not expect noticeable results immediately — for this you need to wait at least a month. However, after 30 days you will notice impressive changes and you will want to apply the Pareto principle in every area of your life.
Starting your own business is a rather difficult task that requires a lot of time, money, energy and personal effort. However, even giving all the best at 100%, it is far from always possible to notice the desired result. That is why experienced businessmen advise beginners to pay attention to the Pareto law, which is becoming more and more popular in the business sphere.
If you follow all his principles, then to get 80% of the result you will need to make only 20% of the effort and vice versa: 80% of your efforts will bring you only 20% of the result. Using the Pareto law, you will save yourself from unnecessary work, respectively, from unnecessary stress, and free up a lot of time for things that bring you pleasure (hobbies and hobbies, recreation, communication with family, walks with friends, travel).
Entrepreneurs who have already applied the Pareto law in business report great success. So, only 20% of leads bring 80% of sales and only 20% of content bring 80% of traffic to the site. Pareto’s law is applicable in many areas of human life. It is very popular among those people who want to increase their efficiency and productivity, while not spending a lot of effort and energy.
Difficulties in using the principle
The most basic difficulty in the process of using the Pareto principle is the determination of those very 20% of cases that will lead to 80% of the result. For example, if you run your own blog and are trying to attract a large number of visitors to your site, then the question remains which 20% of topics should be given maximum attention, and which issues can be excluded from coverage. If you apply the rule in sports, then how do you know which exercises will make your body stronger and more muscular: squats, push-ups or pull-ups?
Unfortunately, neither the Italian economist Vilfredo Pareto nor the formula invented by him give a direct and understandable answer to this question. It turns out that the application of the Pareto law is a kind of roulette, since you can understand its effectiveness only by trial and error. At the same time, it is important to think over all your steps in advance and strategically plan your plan of action. This is especially true for those people who plan to apply the principle in the process of developing their own business.
The thing is that reckless actions and refusal to do 80% of the work can lead to major problems in your company or even to its collapse and bankruptcy.
Can it not work?
Despite the fact that the Pareto principle is very popular, and has already proved its effectiveness and veracity more than once, there are still skeptics who do not believe in the operation of the theorem. Let’s talk about whether there can be such a situation when the Pareto principle will not work.
Without further ado, let’s say right away that such a situation can arise, and in some cases the Pareto principle will not work. But this fact in no way diminishes the importance of the discovery of the Italian economist or its significance. The thing is that even despite the fact that the Pareto principle applies to all areas of human life, it will not always act absolutely identical. For example, differences can be observed in business, sports, self-development. In this regard, when planning their actions, scientists advise not only to be guided by the Pareto principle, but also to take into account other, more tangible data (for example, statistical information).
By itself, the Pareto law is a rather controversial and controversial theorem. On the one hand, there are a large number of those people who assure that the formula really works and can lead you to the best possible result. However, on the other hand, very often one can come across opinions that the Pareto law is real nonsense and fiction, that it is not applicable in real life.
One way or another, you can try to independently apply a similar formula in your personal life (in the field of self-development, dietetics, sports or business) and see for yourself in its effectiveness by your own example, having formed your own unbiased opinion about it.
The effectiveness of communication with relatives and strangers depends on the correct formulation of one’s own arguments. The ability to correctly express one’s thoughts enables a person to establish and maintain good relations with others, to achieve success in a wide variety of areas. The outcome of a business meeting often depends on the level of speech proficiency.
How to learn to speak correctly?
The ability to express thoughts in words is called speech. Achieving mutual understanding is possible only with the correct transfer of your thoughts to another person. Their competent expression, the correct choice of language means in a particular situation provide the desired effect in achieving communicative tasks.
In communication, it is important to convey your feelings and reasoning to another person, thereby introducing your “I”. There is even an expression “speech is flowing into another”. In other words, speaking is doing work for others. The ability to convey one’s thoughts correctly to the listeners in words is not inherent in everyone. Problems with the presentation of thoughts may appear due to a violation of diction, lack of the necessary vocabulary, inability to concentrate one’s attention.
These qualities must be instilled from childhood. Children should be taught how to express themselves clearly.. Features of education often deprive the child of full communication. Adults discourage the baby from sharing his thoughts with someone. A person who has grown up alone does not know what to talk about when meeting with his acquaintance, what topics are appropriate to touch upon during a conversation. Complexes provoke fear and are the cause of silence.
The task of adults is to develop in children the ability to put thoughts into words.
First, a suitable text is selected, which should not contain a huge number of events and descriptions. Then they slowly read it, highlighting the most important points with intonation. The child must isolate the main idea.
Then, in a conversation, they find out whether the baby understood everything. Be sure to find out if the child liked the story. After re-reading, a joint retelling is recommended. To memorize and train the expression of thoughts, the baby must retell the work to someone else.
Good command of the language makes it possible for a mature person to realize himself in the profession and creativity. The ability to communicate competently and confidently contributes to the development of full-fledged relationships and career advancement. You must be able to interest the interlocutor, influence him, attract to your side, so it is very important to learn how to use your speech. The use of quotations and lyrical digressions in it attracts the attention of listeners, but one must carefully follow the logical chain of the narrative so as not to stray and come to the right conclusion in time.
Experts recommend learning to clearly feel your interlocutor.
If he gets bored, he should immediately change the subject.
Before an erudite person, they are advised to demonstrate their knowledge.
It is necessary to say goodbye to the person who has expressed a desire to leave in time.
There is no need to strive to please the interlocutor, because flattery and insincerity are detrimental to full-fledged communication. Compliance with the elementary rules of an annoying and boring narrator turns into a pleasant conversationalist. A short, clear, concise way of expressing thoughts is conciseness. It significantly saves the time of interlocutors.
Don’t get too carried away with the details. Verbosity makes it difficult to perceive information.
You need to focus on the interlocutor so as not to lose the outline of the conversation.
It is necessary to avoid speaking in fragments of phrases, jumping from one subject of conversation to another.
Before expressing a thought, you need to think it through to the end in order to know exactly how the sentence will end.
An educated person is obliged to observe the basic rules of sounding speech.
It is necessary to get rid of the use of parasitic words, speech errors, colloquial expressions, complex sentence structures. Parasite words do not carry a semantic load, and their frequent repetition clogs speech and makes communication difficult.
Necessary components of competent clean speech are intelligibility and clarity. The correct pronunciation allows a person not to go beyond the generally accepted norms and not get into an awkward position. The accuracy of speech involves the use of a word in full accordance with the meaning assigned to it in the language, dictionary. Wrong word choice distorts the meaning of the statement. For example, there was a case when the announcer made an unfortunate reservation: instead of «accountant-inventory» he said «accountant-inquisitor».
Expressiveness of the statement is given by speech diversity: epithets, metaphors, comparative phrases, winged expressions, sayings, proverbs. There are interesting techniques that allow a person to learn how to correctly and competently express their thoughts.
The increase in the volume of the linguistic stock. Reading classical literature contributes to the formation of the correct construction of sentences, learning to express the same thought in different ways.
Replenishment of vocabulary helps to diversify phrases. Sometimes the lack of words prevents a person from correctly and beautifully describing the situation. It is recommended to constantly introduce new words into speech. Their meaning must be specified in the explanatory dictionary.
Training of high-quality memorization of information. It is very important to constantly develop memory, because without the ability to remember and reproduce important information, factual errors cannot be avoided. Training to improve memory and attention, to clearly express thoughts is to memorize the longest sequence of numbers, learn poems and lyrics. Good nutrition, maintaining a healthy lifestyle, physical activity, good sleep, walks in the fresh air increase the quality of memorization of the material and human performance.
Concentration of attention on a certain thought. You need to learn how to focus on the right information as much as possible. Such concentration helps to pronounce a thought without inaccuracies, to avoid random words and erroneous phrases.
To control concentration, an effective way of visualizing an object is used. It is necessary to imagine in detail the details of the desired image. For example, if we are talking about a dog, you need to focus on its breed, color, coat structure, activity, parameters. Then they are advised to try to imagine some action related to the image.
It’s hard to concentrate in a crowded place, so you need to train at home to do exercises with loud music or the TV on. In the future, the noise of the external environment will not interfere with concentration.
Experts advise try to describe any household object beautifully, for example, a coffee table or a teapot, giving things an expressive definition. Vernaculars must be excluded. It is recommended to give the first word that comes across a definition in the form of a complete phrase. Let’s say that a person must first ask himself: «What does a greeting mean?» And then comes the extended answer.
In order to control all speech defects It is advised to record statements on a voice recorder. Listening to the recording makes it possible to identify all the inaccuracies of speech, to notice the use of parasitic words, repetitions of words, deviation from the main idea in the narrative, loss of the main thread, an excess of terms or stilted words, extra pauses, a long search for a suitable word, weakness of voice, uncertainty.
Monotonous phrases are not perceived by listeners. Change intonation according to content.. To cope with poor pronunciation, exercises aimed at the correct placement of intonational accents and the development of pure diction help. To improve the quality of spoken words, it is recommended to sing vowel sounds in turn with a measured transition from one to another. Clear pronunciation is achieved when working on exercises with tongue twisters.
Speech therapists advise working on the mobility of the tongue. First, it must be placed on one cheek, then on the other, then it should be moved to the palate and, finally, get the tip as close as possible to the root.
We must not forget about self-control. In a dispute, words must be chosen softer, and arguments must be firmer. A simple manner of speech allows you to achieve good results in communicating with any interlocutors. Erudition, possession of useful information make it possible to conduct interesting conversations.
The desire to reduce and simplify the language means used helps the author of the speech to convey a large content in a small form. It is necessary to break the narrative into small paragraphs, focus on important thoughts, supplement the story with interesting stories or anecdotes.
Excessive verbosity, a meager vocabulary, a violation of the logic of the narrative, excessive sarcasm and the minimum amount of necessary information lead to difficulty in understanding and perceiving information.
Tempo and volume
Control over the speed of speech, volume and intonation allows the author of the statement to place the correct accents and pauses. It is very important to choose the right pace for each specific situation. Sometimes measured and unhurried speech is appropriate. It should be borne in mind that excessive stretching of words irritates interlocutors. Sluggish and forced phrases are often associated with poor knowledge of the material being discussed.
For a heated debate, a fast pace is more suitable. Too hasty speech must be skillfully combined with semantic pauses. So it is easier for the listener to perceive the essence of what was said, and the speaker will be able to learn to speak beautifully and gesticulate correctly. A fast pace is justified when it is necessary to convey maximum information to the listener in a short period of time. But sometimes it leads to annoying reservations.
Hasty speech is often unpleasant for listeners. Material presented at a too fast pace is not always assimilated. An important thought is usually spoken in slow motion.
The tempo of speech is associated with logical and psychological pauses, which give the interlocutors the opportunity to prepare for further perception of the material.
The tempo and loudness emotionally color the speech and endow it with a certain rhythm and melody. At some point, you should raise the volume, somewhere you need to lower your voice, and at some point, stop altogether, pause. Important semantic blocks of text are highlighted in a sonorous voice. Minor parts are pronounced in a low tone. In this case, the articulation of sounds should be distinct. Too quiet speech may not be perceived by the interlocutor.
A squeaky exclamation or scream annoys the listener. Do not overwhelm the audience with too loud speech. The tone and timbre of the voice can dramatically affect the emotional state of the interlocutor, regardless of the content of the message.
The emotional background is extremely important. It is created within a person. It is unlikely that effective communication will turn out if the face of the interlocutor with a frown and tightly clenched jaws reflects discontent and disapproval. A friendly person in a good mood always has a conversation. A calm and relaxed atmosphere sets up a constructive dialogue.
A good emotional atmosphere helps to create a manner of speech. It is appropriate to use gestures and facial movements, to diversify the intonation tone.
How to express your thoughts in writing?
The advantage of a written message over a spontaneous oral statement is the ability to think about the phrase. Work messages are meant to be concise and succinct. It is necessary to strictly follow the logic of the presentation of the material. Distraction to lyrical digressions is unacceptable. Each phrase should contain useful information, have its own value and importance.
The reader should not have any problems understanding the text. In conclusion, it is advisable to read the message aloud in order to check it for harmony and correctness.
Experts recommend maintaining your own blog or personal diary, in which you should strive to hone your skills in the field of presenting thoughts and describing events. This is the best way to evaluate the course of your own thoughts and manner of communication.
Training should be carried out in direct correspondence with friends, colleagues, relatives. Before sending a message, it is necessary to carefully analyze whether the phrases are correctly constructed, whether there are tautological phrases in the text (repetition of words with the same root). The expression «I dreamed in a dream» should be replaced with the phrase «I saw in a dream» or «I had a dream.» Gradually written speech is enriched and improved.
What to do if communication is difficult?
Communication often makes it difficult for a person to express his reasoning competently and concisely. An obstacle sometimes is an incomprehensible text, replete with scientific terms. Excessive use of neologisms, borrowed foreign words makes communication difficult. Sometimes the used jargon and vulgarism clog the spoken phrases so much that it is difficult for the listeners to penetrate the essence, to grasp the main grain of the statement. Primitive speech lags behind the high canons of Russian literature and looks stylistically helpless. Sloppy, sloppy, inaccurate speech is difficult to understand.
The main task of communication is to be heard by the interlocutor. The sense of language is formed throughout life. It is developed over many years in the minutes of listening, reading, speaking and writing. The more literate a person is, the more demands he makes on his speech. A linguistic sense prompts an individual who is fluent in the language to choose the necessary word. The more a person speaks, the easier it is for him to formulate his thoughts in the future.
Reading aloud several pages of classical literature a day makes it possible to hear beautiful speech every day, to form template blanks in memory. It is useful to retell the content of the read text, since in the process of retelling the ability to find the main idea of the work is developed, to correctly build a phrase.
Do not miss the opportunity to discuss with others. It is advisable to mentally analyze the words of the opponent and attack him with suitable arguments.. Commenting on your actions allows you to develop speech turns. For example, while cooking, you should try to imagine yourself as the host of a culinary channel, when applying makeup — as a beautician, and while walking around the city — as a guide.
If it is possible to prepare a speech in advance, it should be taken into account that intrigue gives the necessary background to the situation, which serves as a kind of hook to attract the attention of listeners. The trigger phrase can be an aphorism, an anecdote, an interesting case or a short philosophical discussion. Then you need to stake out the main idea and let it float freely: pick up the necessary arguments, arguments, statements. Do not forget about connecting phrases. In conclusion, the story needs to be summarized.
The upcoming conversation by phone or Skype should be thought out in advance. You can write all the information point by point on a piece of paper. Writing a brief plan will prevent unnecessary digressions from the topic. It is advisable to ask questions to the interlocutor in order to understand whether he correctly interprets the information he hears.
It is very important to choose a style, manner of communication and words that are suitable for specific interlocutors.. Naturalness inspires confidence. Ease helps to quickly join the conversation. If a mistake was accidentally made in speech, you can’t get hung up on it, because the interlocutor forgets about it in a minute. A sense of humor helps to defuse tense situations.
The ability to succinctly and accurately express one’s thoughts, to correctly build phrases ensures effective communication.
A person should always be positive. Unfortunately, this does not always work out. In most cases, people cannot overcome the problems that are happening around them on a subconscious level. This phenomenon significantly spoils the quality of life and affects mood. And a lot depends on the mood, first of all — success in everything. What to do to correct the situation? You need to change your thinking and then everything around will change for the better.
When it is necessary?
If your life is one gray spot, you definitely need to change something in it. You ask: “What exactly needs to be changed?”. First you need to change yourself, that is, your thinking.
At the same time, you need to take into account that everything in this life depends only on you.
Psychologists divide thinking processes into conditional groups:
rational, useful, adaptive are productive components;
irrational, malicious, maladaptiveThese are unproductive elements of thinking.
The worldview needs to be changed if it is destructive. For example, you can’t do anything both in your personal life and professionally. Not only are you depressed because of negative thoughts, you always feel like you are doing something wrong. Keep in mind that all these negative factors you create and project yourself. Of course, there are situations from which it is very difficult to get out. But in most cases a person creates unthinkable barriers for himself, which are very difficult to overcome.
Perhaps you made some fatal mistakes in the past that led to negative changes in your entire life. It is possible that someone pushed you to rash steps. However, everyone knows the fact that as long as we live, we can change everything.
Do not cry all the time and blame yourself and others for your failures. You can start to change and even very necessary at any age. Everything depends on the individual case.
These actions will not change anything, but only aggravate the negative situation. From constant depressive moods, you can get sick. And then your problems will begin to grow like a snowball.
Are there things in your life that you don’t like? This means that you need changes in all areas of your life. Where to begin? With a change in the inner world, that is, consciousness. And yet, some will say, «Easy to say but hard to do.» It is precisely such thoughts that hinder the development of personality. Remember: life is one and you need to live it in such a way that you don’t regret anything later.
Probably, to change your destiny and your being as a whole, you will have to change your place of residence. And if you are ready to take even this step, then you are a brave person who is not ready to endure routine and dullness. Deciding to make major changes is difficult. But if you really want this, then this task is quite feasible. You can also change your thoughts through various exercises and training.
Methods for different areas of life
Psychologists say that each individual person has the property of constructing his own reality. In this, she is helped by consciousness, which is located in the brain. It is the intellect that makes a man a man. Therefore, it must be used to make your life colorful and interesting.
The negative problem is that most people do not know how to use the unique possibilities of brain activity. And the most important technique that can be offered and that can be applied in all spheres of life is the projection of the future. In life, you need to think and analyze a lot. You need to ask yourself simple, at first glance, questions: “How to find yourself in life?”, “How to behave with loved ones, at work?” etc.
The secret of future success lies in the fact that you can build your future with this search. Without building the future, it is impossible to fully live in the present. Therefore, the very first and easiest method to change anything in life and in your mind is to start building perspectives. They must be bold and far-reaching. The sketches of possibilities are our desires. By building a plan for your successful life, you will send your desires to the Universe.
Therefore, ask for more, and there, when they hear you, they will give you as much as you need.
Wise people came up with this expression: what you are looking for, you will always find. So, if you are looking for success, you will definitely find it. And if your thoughts are occupied with problems and negativity, then they will haunt you until you tell them: “Enough!”. That’s why start correcting your thinking in all areas.
Relationships and family
This is the most painful question. It is the family and relationships between close people that are the stronghold of all the good that a person has.
If conflict situations often occur in your inner circle, then not only you are to blame, but also those who are nearby.
To correct the situation, first of all, start by correcting yourself. Try to bring more bright colors to your little world every day. Be sure to pay attention to your emotions, restrain negative impulses. Just change your subconscious and stereotyped behavior and you will see how everything changes. For example, if everyone in the family is used to speaking in raised tones, then you should, on the contrary, speak quietly. Let everyone listen to your calm voice.
Take care of your loved ones more often. By doing so, you set an example of an ideal relationship. Do not swear or say bad words if one of the relatives is guilty. Dissatisfaction with the situation should be expressed calmly and be sure to point out mistakes. Be together more in nature. Nothing brings people together like delicious food and outdoor activities. During rest always say nice things about your loved ones. Such simple methods will allow you to change yourself and change the world around you for the better.
Rich and successful people, if they have earned capital through their work, are quite courageous and assertive individuals. Therefore, try to do as your mind tells you. A person who is too dependent on the opinion of society will never become successful.
Therefore, move away from a clear framework. Remember that there are many possibilities in life and you can use a million options to build your life. If you want to become rich and successful, learn to take risks correctly. And, most importantly, do not be afraid and remember that you have been given the right to choose, since you are a free person. You also need learn not to look for problems where there are none. Don’t think of situations that scare you ahead of time.
For example, you are an excellent financier, but you are always afraid to invest your money in stocks or in any business. It must also be understood that money has to work, and fears keep you from thinking big. Although you have calculated everything for a long time and were even able to determine future profits, fear still stops you. Fear of losing money if they are invested incorrectly. This is a significant motive for doing nothing.
But if you do nothing, then there will be no profit. And that means the money will soon run out.
So, you still have to change your worldview and inner psychology. Then your environment will also change. And try to think big. If you are not confident in yourself today, then tomorrow, perhaps, you will begin to respect yourself. And for this you need to take the first step and take a risk. Let this risk be insignificant, but if you succeed, your ideas will change. They will be the impetus for new thinking.
Some complain that they cannot find their calling. They want to create and execute various projects, but instead they have to sit all day in a boring office for a small salary. How to fix it?
First of all — stop being afraid of losing what you have long been bored with. Otherwise, you will sit in one place and achieve nothing. If you are ready to dare, then dare. Drop your doubts and start looking for a new job. Don’t be intimidated by the fact that you have to study. It’s never too late. New knowledge always gives new opportunities. And it’s hard to disagree with this statement.
Once you can change your mindset, your life will begin to change too. Set a goal and move in that direction. Most importantly, stop being jealous and judging others. Even if you are used to doing this all the time, try to give up bad habits as soon as possible. Believe me, they take too much of your energy. And this energy can be directed to your well-being.
Don’t be afraid of change. You may need to move to another city in order to build a career and achieve success.
Can you really give up bright prospects because of the habits that will remain in a past life? If you are still in doubt, then think about the fact that a new place of residence is always new prospects.
Basically, think less. The more you calculate this or that situation, the more it scares you. Just understand: real events often turn out to be not as gloomy as your subconscious mind painted them for you. For example, you want your boss to offer you a promotion. Don’t be afraid to tell him about it. It’s possible that your boss just hasn’t thought about your promotion yet. And when you prompt this thought to him, he will make a decision in your favor.
And if something goes wrong, then you should not despair either. Why do you need such a job, where there are no prospects, where you are not appreciated as an employee, despite all your efforts? And if so, then change your attitude to the place of work and try to find one where your knowledge will come in handy. Everywhere people live, and the sun shines everywhere the same way. Willingness to change makes your life promising. And this is the main reason that leads to a change in your thinking. It should only be positive.
Take control of your habitual thinking. It is what makes a person happy, successful and wise. So take a step towards a wonderful life. And professional advice will help you with this.
Get rid of all the prejudices that are preventing you from moving forward.. No one can tell you for sure how the situation will turn out if you decide to act in a certain way. Therefore, do not be afraid and rely on your intuition, which will not let you down.
With the help of the method of alternative visualization, you can improve your perception of the world around you. Is there no sun outside? Turn on a bright chandelier!
Tell yourself all the time that nothing is impossible for you.. Set yourself up for success.
Finish whatever you start. Therefore, if you have begun to change your worldview, then do not stop and do not be distracted by negative factors. Remember that everywhere you need to work hard first, and only then reap the benefits.
What is «good» and what is «bad»? The answer to these questions is not always obvious, everyone has their own view of a particular event. It all depends on the type of thinking of each person. We will talk about thinking in this material.
What is thinking?
The way a person perceives reality depends on what thoughts live in the head. In psychology, there is the following definition of thinking: it is a process, as a result of which the systematic relations of the environment are modeled.
It should be noted that thinking cannot be learned, it cannot be memorized from textbooks, thinking is the ability to understand what is happening around, given to man by consciousness and millennia of evolution.
We see only what we personally see in each specific situation. This is the merit of thinking, and everyone has their own, unique. The only thing that, perhaps, is the same for all sane people is the properties of thinking. In psychology, there are seven main directions in which our thoughts go.
Purposefulness. Every thought process has an end goal. We always try to find an answer to any question posed. And it doesn’t always have to be a matter of life and death.
Logic. Even female logic, contrary to jokes and anecdotes, is always there. Of course, it is not always true, understandable to others, but it is, nevertheless, present in the thought process.
Development. Undeveloped thinking is characteristic of babies and people with mental disabilities. People with undeveloped thinking are quite happy if their primitive natural needs are satisfied — for food, sleep.
The ability to form concepts. To compare and characterize a phenomenon, a thing, a situation is an obligatory property of human thinking.
Thinking is incapable of being objective. Feelings and experiences of a particular person always interfere in this process. Therefore, it is not necessary to say that someone thinks correctly, and someone does not. Everyone thinks in their own right way.
Positivity / Negativity. For some, everything is exclusively in white, for others — in black, it all depends on how a person relates to what is happening around. Some are able to find positive emotions even in the most difficult and unpleasant situation. Others are purposefully looking for a catch at their own wedding.
Orientation in time, linearity. Some only look forward, while others look back. If the former are thinking about how to get out of a particular situation, the latter are trying to understand why this happened and what they did wrong.
Types and their characteristics
Psychologists generally divide thinking into three classes of thinking:
visual and effective;
Such a division is built according to the genetic principle, while determining the various degrees of development of thinking that occur sequentially.
Visual-effective implies that a person observes real objects, animals, people and comprehends the relationship between them in a particular situation.
Visual-figurative involves the creation of ideas about a certain situation or images. That is a person uses visual images through their figurative representations.
Verbal-logical involves the use of logical knowledge about a particular event, object, being. And thus a person comprehends the essential patterns and unobservable relationships of real events or objects.
Besides, thinking is divided into visual and verbal, that is, it is easier for someone to see it once, for another it is enough to hear it. It is also divided into practical and theoreticalthat is, for someone “the law is not written”, he is looking for all kinds of ways to solve this or that problem, for others it is important to comply with the norms and rules that they themselves develop.
The following antipodes are associated with intuitive and analytical thinking. The first proceeds quickly, is not divided into separate clear stages, is little realized. The second is long in time, divided into clear stages, concretely represented in the human head.
But no matter what type of thinking you are, it is important to be able to start the process of comparison in your head, it helps to find similar and different properties of objects, situations, which in the future will certainly help to solve the problem.
Two more integral parts of the thought process are analysis and synthesis. At first glance, these are opposite concepts, the first involves dividing something whole into parts for a better understanding, while the second, on the contrary, allows you to move from the particular to the general. But both processes are important for thinking — any sound activity of thought must be exactly analytically synthesized.
Although, on the other hand, the process of thinking is purely personal, and often it depends on the character of a person. Some people have a good mindset, while others have a lazy mindset. Who thinks judiciously, who is impulsive. It is also divided into feminine and masculine, civilized and wild, flexible and straightforward. Yes, and it happens at different levels.
Some thoughts swarm in the depths of our consciousness, others on the surface, others remain somewhere in the middle, there are most often those that appeared due to the stereotypes that surround us. A variety of, but most often controlled and well-recognised thoughts break out.But in the farthest corner hides what appeared with us almost unconsciously. This is the base on which all our subsequent thought processes then begin to be based.
And at the same time, not any thinking helps to live. Sometimes it can get in the way. Sometimes you need to act quickly, relying on your own experience, reflexes developed over the years, and the thought process slows down the simple solution of important problems. The category of «harmful» thoughts also includes unnecessary, negative, and of course, annoying. They have no place in our heads at all and we should get rid of them.
Raising a son, building a house and planting a tree is a list of life goals that everyone knows. Today we will try to fulfill the third point. And not in the direct sense of it. Let’s create a goal tree. Ideally, in the future it will help to solve both the first two tasks and the third, but in its real sense.
What it is?
A goal tree is a fairly common method for achieving goals, which is mainly used in management. To use this method, a person needs to “grow a tree” of his goals. To do this, they should be distributed according to the levels of significance. It can be said that this is the definition of plans in the form of a tree drawing.
came up with it Russell Lincoln Ackoff, a scientist from the USA, and it happened back in 1957. The idea of the American turned out to be so successful that it is still widely used today. In fact, this is a method of planning cases, only the schedule is compiled in the form of a tree. Its trunk is the main goal, and branches are simpler or less significant tasks.
When creating it, graphic images are used. Moreover, the tree in such a figure will be upside down.
Thus, the trunk is at the top and symbolizes the main goal. And from its top, our other tasks “grow”, as if forming the crown of the tree of goals.
Pros and cons
Structuring information in the form of a tree of goals will help to cope with the tasks set more effectively. By “planting” such a sprout, you will immediately see what problems you have to solve, what you will need in order to climb to the top, what additional resources may be required.
In this way you can even determine the time it will take to implement your plan. However, this will be a very approximate value. But you can easily figure out how one of your actions affects another, how the complexity of performing one task depends on another. Tracking relationships will help not only to implement ideas in business and create successful projects, but also to solve personal problems.
The disadvantages can hardly be attributed to some laboriousness of the method, because to build our tree of goals, you will have to try.
How to build?
The technique itself is very easy to use. You just need to follow a few key rules. And this will make your life easier, help in self-realization, and maybe even allow you to find happiness. So, let’s get down to the task at hand.
The circuit is very simple. The main thing is to make it right. First, we define our main goal. It will become the support, the essence, that is, the trunk of our tree. But in order for the trunk to become strong and powerful, it needs branches — other tasks that surround it will form a crown. In another way, they can be called subgoals that must be achieved in order to eventually begin to implement the main idea. Each such branch can have its own «sprouts».
One of the design rules is to thoroughly “draw” each process. To create a tree, you need to scrupulously describe each of its branches, and then your mission will certainly become feasible. This technique will show you all of your upcoming actions that will need to be taken to achieve your plan, and will also help determine the resources that you will need to use.
Consider needs and resources
A goal tree is created to solve very complex tasks or implement large-scale projects that require a clear action plan. Sometimes it is difficult to estimate what this or that goal will cost us. In this case we will clearly depict the requirements that each problem places on us, and we will be able to determine what we need to implement it, what we already have at our disposal, what additional forces and means will be needed.
When creating a tree of goals, form your ideas clearly. Be sure to determine what the final result should be. To do this, write on what grounds it will be possible to call your task completed, how you will feel when this happens, what events will indicate the fulfillment of a dream and the achievement of a goal. Set a due date for the work.
Break the task down into steps
To save time and effort, divide your intentions into several stages. The first, of course, will be the main goal. Next, distribute the subgoals along the “crown” of your tree. Then describe what you need to implement them. You must write out all the resources you need. Only then will it become clear how to solve the main problem.
For everything to work correctly, you need to define each step. If your scheme does not get one or another stage, all efforts will be in vain. When at least one small branch is missing in the goal tree, this leads to its “withering”. Only if you specify everything you need to implement your plan, the plan will work. If it turns out that you intentionally or accidentally missed something, then everything will go down the drain or not.
Compliance with the structure of the enterprise
Imagine that your enterprise is a tree. Each of its departments is a separate branch that helps to support and strengthen the trunk. Everyone should have their own specific goal, a clearly formulated task. If the load between units is distributed correctly, then your tree will definitely stand firmly on the ground.
An imbalance will lead to catastrophic consequences.
For more efficient work, the decomposition method is often used. With him the main task is broken down into several less complex and less time-consuming to perform.
Another variant — build a kind of staircase from small tasks leading to the top of your tree. Which method to use, you need to decide based on the specific situation. In each individual case, one or the other option may be more effective.The main thing is to correctly assess the available resources and correctly distribute them to solve the tasks.
As we already know, the goal tree can help not only in the implementation of business projects, but also in solving purely private tasks. For example, let’s take a situation that is faced, perhaps, in every family. Namely, the problem of the child’s admission to a higher educational institution. The applicant’s goal tree will consist of a trunk (the main task is to become a student of a certain university) and branches (resources available for this and a list of additional ones).
First you need to determine what is already available on the items:
the level of knowledge gained in secondary school, USE scores;
the presence of connections in the educational environment;
financial capabilities of parents, other relatives who can provide assistance.
Next, you need to analyze the state in which these resources are located, and begin to search for «fertilizers», that is, the creation of subgoals. Let’s start from the very beginning — if the knowledge that the child receives in the classroom at school is not enough for admission, additional classes are needed. You need to find a person who has sufficient knowledge and the ability to teach a child. Most likely, he will not do this for free, so it is necessary to find funds in the family budget to pay for the services of a tutor.
Besides, you will have to radically reshape your child’s schedule and set aside time for extra classes. From here, new shoots “cut through”. For example, to find a tutor, you can use your connections: remember, maybe your old friend still teaches at MGIMO? In case of a shortage of money to pay for the work of a tutor, you need to think about where you can get them. This may be a loan, and the search for additional sources of income, and the opportunity to ask for financial assistance from friends or relatives.
Of course, if your child intends to go to study at the Ivanovo Textile Institute, all this is unlikely to be required. There are enough universities in Russia where you can enter with an average level of marks. If this is your goal, then the tree created to achieve it will be different. Among the subgoals will be the collection of necessary documents, certificates from a doctor, and so on.
If your goal is Moscow State University or a prestigious university abroad, then your tree will turn out to be more cumbersome, but, you see, it will be more difficult to grow it, but much more attractive and interesting for each member of your family. This most often requires not only a bright mind, but also a tight wallet.
You can also achieve financial well-being with the help of a goal tree. So, our trunk (main task) is financial well-being. Its branches (subgoals) are the main and additional earnings, the possibility of earning income through investments in banks, the purchase of securities, playing on the stock exchange or the lottery.
It all depends on how «strong» your trunk is.
If your main idea — enter the Forbes list, then there will be no less branches on your tree of goals than pages in this prestigious magazine. Its branches will accommodate additional education, a change in professional activity, the search for “the right people” in the industry you are interested in, moving to another region or even to another country, and so on.
If you just need to find an extra couple of thousand rubles for financial well-being, then the branches of your tree will look different. The list of sub-goals in this case would include finding extra or overtime work, buying a lottery ticket, visiting a rich aunt, and so on.
In both cases, the goal tree will certainly help you. Remember, the main thing is to accurately formulate your desires, carefully analyze your capabilities and find additional resources to realize your dreams.. And then you will certainly raise a son, build a house, and plant a tree near him, reminiscent of the tree of goals that once helped you fulfill your desire.
Reading is the greatest ability, a complex psychological process, 100% mental work. From the outside, this may seem easy, but if you look at how difficult reading lessons are for kids, how hard it is for a person to master a skill after suffering injuries and brain disorders, it becomes clear that this is a lot of work.
The motor, auditory and visual centers of the frontal lobes of the cortex, as well as the speech zones of the dominant hemisphere, are synchronously involved in reading.
Features of the speed reading technique
Reading speed is not just a desirable quality for many people, but also an excellent psychophysiological test. To turn black and white icons into meaningful information, the brain strains, decodes the characters. The more a person reads, the more this process accelerates. For people with speed reading, it takes the smallest fraction of a second, but for people with poor reading skills, they have to pronounce the words to themselves.
Knowing that even intellectual games (for example, chess) do not exceed reading in terms of the efficiency of the thought process, one wants to read quickly, a lot, literally grasping information on the fly. And this really can be learned.
Speed reading is a skill that is achieved primarily through practice. And you need to start training it with a simple action: do not pronounce the words to yourself, but simply slide your eyes over the lines. At first it seems difficult, it is difficult to follow the meaning, but gradually everything falls into place.
And (there’s no getting away from it) speed reading is about the quality and quantity of reading. If you open a book once a week, don’t expect high results.
Experts give the following advice on accustoming yourself to reading a lot:
read in transport, in line to the doctor, in the bathroom, in the kitchen, while the soup is being cooked — so the forced time of “downtime” you do not just while away, but spend it with benefit;
telephones and computers — the same books, electronic «readers» may not be visually, by sensations, but the principle of information entering the brain is the same;
do not be lazy to re-read books, return to your favorite works of youth;
do not try to master the list of «100 books that everyone should read», it’s just a race, the quality of reading can suffer greatly during it;
be sure to read any poems (but better — good ones), this develops memory, makes the brain work even more intensively and has a good psycho-emotional effect on a person.
In short, the first step to speed reading is multi-reading. Replace the endless surfing of social networks with a good book and you will not turn your brain into an information trash.
Speed reading is necessary for so that you do not spend a lot of time on one book, but can read a whole stack of useful and interesting works in a month. And if you start reading several books in parallel, then, relatively speaking, you will write out a golden card for your brain in the “intellectual simulator”.
There are a lot of speed reading methods: you can start with any one that is most attractive to you. The main rule is to read every day. You can work with dynamic reading, with diagonal reading — each technique involves a number of simple tricks. They allow you to read the text quickly and with understanding.
Speed up your reading
The first step is subvocalization suppression. You may not read the text aloud, but inside you still pronounce it. If you are asked to read a passage of text in 1 minute, you are unlikely to be able to say more than 180 words during this time. But when the speed of perception of literal information increases, then you will not be able to quickly pronounce words, and subvocalization will interfere with the teaching of speed reading.
How to get rid of the internal pronunciation of the text:
while reading, just press your tongue to the sky;
clamp the tip of the pencil with your teeth;
put your finger on your lips.
It takes time to master this skill, but watch your reading every day.
The next step is the rejection of regressions. This means that you should not return to read fragments. The easiest way to do this is to lead along the lines with your finger (as in the first grade). Readers may have special programs that highlight text with color. Over time, you will realize that the following text will help the brain fill in the gaps if you missed something on the previous pages.
Increasing the concentration of attention also helps to increase the pace of reading. And it’s a great workout too. A simple example: print the names of colors on a sheet, but to “confuse” the brain, highlight them with other colors. For example, print the word «red» in blue and the word «white» in orange. And the training of concentration of attention lies in the fact that you need to say out loud not a word, but the color in which it is printed.
Also useful in increasing the pace of reading are special applications that develop peripheral vision. You only need to train on one line, where words with a letter highlighted in a certain color in the middle appear at different speeds. So a person learns to perceive the word as a whole.
Give up bad habits
Reading is work. It can be pleasant, exciting, inspiring, loved, but it is still work. You can learn to read quickly only if you have a high concentration on the goal. And the main enemy on this path is the habit of being distracted.
What hinders reading:
multitasking — if you read, then at the same time you don’t need to climb social networks, look into instant messengers and get distracted by coffee too often;
linking the ritual of reading to food, for example: of course, you will pick up a book more often if you do it in the process of eating, but it is better not to form such associative connections (it is dangerous for the figure, and the quality of reading suffers);
poor conditions — insufficient lighting, uncomfortable posture, late hours of the day lead to the fact that your health worsens and this forces you to pick up a book or “reader” less often;
lack of pleasant rituals — for a start they are necessary, it can be a burning aroma candle, cozy pajamas, silence in the house.
help you and reader diaries. Get yourself a beautiful notebook in which you will be a literary critic.
Write a little about each book you read: impressions, emotions, strong points, your reflections. This fuels interest in reading and, again, pumps the brain.
Change the way you read
You can review the material before reading. This will form an idea of the content of the text and even become an assessment of whether you should take on the reading. And to preview the material, try reading the entire first paragraph, the first sentence of each subsequent paragraph, and the entire last paragraph.
How else to change the way you read:
pay attention to headings, highlighted words and bulleted lists — this does not give a complete understanding of the text, but it structures it well, a plan for reading important points is already forming in your head;
look for the main words — isolating key words helps to capture the essence of the material without being distracted by details (when studying large amounts of information for an exam or test, this is a very valuable skill);
skip those parts of the text that you already know;
connect the ideas of the text with those things that you already know;
use a highlighter when reading (this applies mainly to educational literature).
Using the highlighted words in the text, you can restore its meaning, main thoughts, and this will be an excellent support when answering the exam.
Tim Ferriss method
Tim Ferriss, author of «How to Work 4 Hours a Week…» developed a technique that triples your reading speed. And the whole methodology, in fact, consists of two defining techniques.
Pencil. It’s simple — while reading, you use a pencil, which helps you follow the text and which also sets the pace. This helps not to jump over the lines with your eyes, not to return to what you read (refusal of regression).
Not at first. Start each new line in the text not with the first, but at least with the third word. And finish reading the line also three words before it ends. Try to think of the rest of the words using the context, or even better, capture them with peripheral vision. Even if the meaning eludes you at first, persevere with it—the eyes need to adjust to the new reading speed. In time, understanding will come.
It is noteworthy that the first technique helps to master the second. Untrained readers, Ferriss says, spend a lot of time reading in the margins. And they spend 20% of their reading time on a section of the page with zero information.
To read fluently, easily, attentively, maintaining a rhythm is an excellent goal. It will suit an adult, but schoolchildren can also try to train the skill.
There are 10 great speed reading exercises.
Reading with a pointer. The pencil method is basic, so you can’t get away from it. And in order not to feel like a schoolboy (if you are not a schoolboy), replace the pencil, for example, with a sushi stick, a brush, a skewer. This simple exercise boosts reading speed.
«Green Dot» In the center of the page with any text, draw a green dot, look at it for 10 minutes. Mentally imagine this point even before going to bed, even with your eyes closed while lying in bed. And do this concentration on the point daily for 7-10 days. After that, start looking at the text that surrounds the dot. You don’t need to read the words — you just need to see them.
Read upside down. Cheerful children’s fun perfectly trains the brain and promotes speed reading. Try reading a sentence first, then a paragraph, then two.
Print any unfamiliar text. Seal some of its places (small, not wider than 1 cm) with colored stickers. Read the text to yourself, restoring it in your mind. In the next lesson, glue more fragments already.
Map the text in your mind. To do this, just skim through the page, take a look around it. Your brain has already begun to memorize the text.
Before you storm the text, remember everything you already know about this topic.. It is only interesting what is already comparable with experience, with the information available. Therefore, interest must be aroused by a preliminary assessment of existing knowledge.
Take any text, draw a wavy line on the page (two bends). You can use a pointer to help you move your eyes while reading. When there is a feeling that the eye is able to catch most of the words, the general line can be straightened.
Read without short words. There are such simulators: the program automatically removes prepositions, pronouns, interjections from the text. And you need to read this text.
Read texts written backwards. Etyatich ytsket, eynnasipan modaz derepan.
Read texts that are missing letters. The brain will begin to build words, and this is also a great way to train speed reading. It could also be poetry.
High Memory Reading Technologies
How great it is not only to be able to read a lot and quickly, but also to remember what you read. And in this case, you need to understand that the prerogative will be the training of attention. This is the key concept of a high level of memorization.
Characteristics of attention factors:
concentration — the level of your concentration;
resilience shows how long you can concentrate;
switching attention — how quickly you can change the object of concentration;
volume —the number of items captured by attention, provided they are quickly presented.
The daily mandatory norm of attention is 2–3 newspapers, 1 magazine, 100–150 pages of any book.
Now consider the most interesting technologies of reading with memorization.
Retelling. Read a page of any text at your maximum speed. Put the book aside. Retell what you read aloud. If you do this, then the likelihood that after 3-7 days you will remember what you read is high. If you ignore the retelling, the residual information after a week can be a couple of lines.
Accustom yourself to work with text manually for the first time. Highlights, underlining, strokes of important places in the text are used. If you are also a visual person, this is a particularly valuable habit for you. It is better to memorize information by dividing it (main thoughts, important clarifications), and the highlighted fragments are easier to remember visually.
Read a page of text very quickly. Try (you can in front of a mirror) to remember the content of the first paragraph, and then the last. Read the text again. Write on a piece of paper 5-6 theses of the text, which allow not only to understand its meaning, but serve as a support for retelling.
Make it a good habit to memorize poetry. This is suitable for both adults and children. The standard norm is one poem per week (at least 5 «columns»). For children, this is one of the best memory trainings, as well as the development of speech, an emotional attitude to reading, etc. Adults, too, after a couple of months of weekly memorization of verses, will notice that their memory has improved. Surprisingly, the reading speed will also increase.
Read at night. In a calm, quiet environment, without “seasoning” reading with something tasty, without turning on the TV in the background. 30-60 minutes of concentrated reading. Then take a shower and go to sleep immediately. And in the morning, try to reproduce what you read to yourself. This helps a lot — the text is remembered in detail.
Write summaries. Repeat this school exercise 2-3 times a week. Reading an article, one page of a book, or one part of a training paragraph. Read quickly, once, and then write a summary of this text (you can also print it). The point is not that you have to write close to the text, but in the conscious replacement of words with synonyms, the restructuring of the text. This exercise will allow you to learn how to read in such a way that information is remembered not as it appears in the text, but in a way that is more convenient for you to understand and reproduce.
There are little secrets that you might not know about before that will help you succeed in speed reading.
Half an hour a day is a must. This is the minimum you should never deviate from. Over time, you will see that time management may need to be worked on. Count how much time you spend on social media, browsing news sites, and watching videos. The answer may amaze you, and after that it will be embarrassing to say that there is no time left for reading.
Read books on links. For example, you are interested in the history of Ancient Egypt. Pick 5-6 books recommended by experts on this topic and read them in a month. Firstly, you get versatile information, not limited to one source. Secondly, you learn to analyze, compare, draw conclusions. Thirdly, appetite comes with eating — I want to read more.
Take pictures of books read in a given period. A stack of books on the table — and a photo. And keep these pictures in a separate folder. Subconsciously, you will want to increase the stack. If you read e-books, make lists of what you read for a month, a year, and also take pictures.
Have an open bookshelf at home. This technique is especially useful for children. Books on this shelf are placed not spine first, but cover. The child sees not the «barrel» of the book, but its cover, and this in itself attracts, forces him to take the book in his hands.
If you want to teach your child to read, the most effective method is very simple — read for yourself.. If a child sees that parents often sit at home with a book, he will inevitably copy parental behavior. If you are content only with moralizing and examples from your childhood, this does not work.
First the book, then the movie. Sometimes it can be the other way around. But the first option is more interesting and more useful for the brain. When you read a text, you visualize it in your head, construct it, and carry out serious mental work. And then you can compare your views and how the director saw it.
Get started today. Do not rely on Monday, New Year, vacation. Pick up a book today and start reading. Knowledge is not superfluous, mental work is new neural connections.
And also remember that many scientists, professors, Nobel laureates are long-livers. Perhaps because their brain is constantly looking for new things, learning new things and exploring. And reading is the most accessible option for such brain training.
Each of us at least once made a list before going to the store or made a list of things that need to be put in a suitcase before traveling. Agree, it works. After sorting out the bag of groceries, we do not return to the store because we forgot to buy salt, but immediately start preparing a festive dinner. And having settled in a hotel, we run to the sea, and not to the nearest shopping center, in order to buy a swimsuit at exorbitant prices. It’s comfortable. Why not try to make a to-do list for life?
What is a to-do list for?
We have been using lists since childhood. Do you remember the lesson schedule or daily routine, for example? It was clearly spelled out what needs to be done in order for my mother to let her go for a walk or allow her to watch the next series of her favorite film. Learn Nekrasov’s poem, solve problem number five from a math textbook, fill out an observation diary, and so on. It’s so convenient.
But for some reason, having received a certificate, we often forget about this simple way to streamline our lives, but in vain. It is clear that the list of things that need to be done before the age of 18 and 30 for girls and boys will be different, and everyone has their own top things, depending on age, gender, social and financial status. But anyway the list is needed if you do not want to regret in old age the wasted years when you were in the prime of life and desires.
Why do our desires often remain only desires? Because for most of us, the plan for the day is very primitive — work-home-work. We just get bogged down in the swamp of everyday life, in which there must be a place for a holiday. And then, going to bed, we catch ourselves thinking that life is passing us by.
How many times have we promised ourselves to read «War and Peace», but now our son graduated from the institute, and we never got to the bookstore. And when we are going to our beloved grandmother’s anniversary, we suddenly wonder why, even at her 80s, she goes to the pool three times a week, and we still haven’t signed up for the gym.
A friend, by the way, in a month marries her daughter, but we never found the only one with whom we could start a family. And there was no time to get to know each other. Putting off your desires all the time is bad for your health.. Get away from the ominous «work-home-work» formula. Take a sheet of paper, take a break from everyday worries and write down what you once dreamed about and what you dream about now.
As your wishes come true, cross them off the list. Believe me, after a while you will understand — life is getting better.
How to compose it correctly?
To get started, choose a time, at least half an hour, and preferably more. Remember — you are starting a new rich life. And so that later it would not be excruciatingly painful for the aimlessly lived years, designate these very goals. Grab a pen and paper or create a new file on your computer and get started. Don’t be afraid to dream. Ideally, of course, so that it is not your desires that surprise your capabilities, but vice versa. But in any case, remember that life is richer than plans, so go for it.
First of all, answer the following questions for yourself.
What would you do today if you knew that the world would end tomorrow? No, not the one that the Mayans allegedly promised in December 2012, but a real apocalypse.
What have you always wanted to do but never got around to?
What countries have you always wanted to visit, or maybe there are other places that your legs never reached — theaters or museums, for example?
Remember your wildest dreams.
Answer yourself the question of who you want to become. Not in the sense of a profession (cook, engineer or trainer), but in a broader sense.
Admit what you don’t know yet, but would certainly like to learn.
Imagine exactly what you would like to tell your grandchildren on your 101st birthday.
List what and who you miss in life.
Most likely, some of your “Wishlist” will scare you or even make you laugh. The main thing is not to stop. Write down all your even the most secret desires. Ideally, such a list should contain at least 100 items.
Can’t imagine such a rich life for yourself? Contact «comrades in misfortune» on the Internet — they will help.
There are tons of to-do lists that everyone needs to do in life. And they are divided into different categories. Here are 100 things that a teenager under 18 and a girl under 20 must do, and then — up to 25 years, up to 30 years and even until the end of life.
Your task is to create your own unique list. To make it easier for you, here are a number of wishes that are common to almost everyone. So let’s get started.
Jump with a parachute (those that raise tourists above sea level also count).
Learn English (German, French, Japanese or any other language).
Walk in the morning dew, preferably with bare feet.
Learn to crochet (make crafts from papier-mâché, cross-stitch, draw). Discover your hidden talents.
Sign up for a gym (pool, fitness club). After all, it’s a pity to throw away that beautiful skirt that no longer fits on you. Let it wait its time.
Forgive your offender, with whom you have not spoken for many years and, in fact, you no longer remember what the fuss is about.
Call your parents.
Confess your feelings to a loved one.
Spend a day away from civilization. Turn off your phone, tablet and other means of communication with the modern world.
Meet the sunrise with your loved one in a romantic setting.
Learn how to make dumplings.
Swim with a dolphin.
Cut your hair bald (dyed red, grow long hair).
Study at a driving school.
Saying «no» when you don’t feel like doing what you’re asked to do.
Plant a tree, break a flower bed, create a greenhouse or grow a flower on a windowsill.
Learn to dance the waltz (tango, square dance, salsa).
Learn by heart your favorite poem (song).
Read the collected works of Leo Tolstoy.
Participate in a charity project.
Stop using foul language.
Win the lottery.
Find a new job.
Complete a course in cutting and sewing.
Visit a psychologist.
Ride a horse.
Feed the cat at the entrance.
Take a walk in the forest.
Get married (get married).
Give a birth to a baby.
Participate in military reconstruction.
Dine in an upscale restaurant.
Throw out unnecessary things.
Take a course of massage.
Smile (several times a day).
Cry out of tenderness (happiness).
Eat a basket of exotic fruits.
End a relationship with a married man (married woman).
Go to the mountains, conquer the mountain peaks.
Attend a social reception.
Assemble a dinner party.
Take part in a community work day.
Gather a collection of coins from at least 30 different countries around the world.
Take a diving lesson.
Visit your favorite teacher.
Go to the bath.
Celebrate the New Year in a «fairytale» country (everyone has their own).
Take part in the march of the Immortal Regiment.
Clean up the graves of relatives.
Forgive yourself for an indecent act.
Find a classmate (classmate) with whom (oops) were inseparable at school.
Say «good morning» to a stranger.
Get to know your neighbors.
Buy a fur coat (or what you dreamed about, but everyone could not find the right amount).
Make a gift just like that, for no reason.
Make changes at home.
Set in the bathroom jacuzzi.
At least a month to lead a healthy lifestyle.
Spend the whole day alone with your child.
Spend the whole day alone.
Ride an extreme ride.
Ride on an elephant.
Arrange a day out.
Move grandma across the road.
Learn to massage.
Take a course of facial rejuvenation.
Lie down in a thermal spring.
See the northern lights and the polar night.
See how the bridges are raised in St. Petersburg.
Drink the most expensive wine.
Try foie gras or another delicacy.
Take a photo with a crocodile in your hands.
Go to the fear room.
Create a family tree.
Pass a preventive medical examination, pass all the tests.
Catch a bucket of crayfish and cook them over a fire.
Win a million.
Attend a cooking class.
Start pouring cold water in the morning.
Dive into the hole.
Help someone, even if you weren’t asked for it.
Learn ten jokes.
Climb the Eiffel Tower.
Walk through the whole city.
Make homemade preparations for the winter.
See the starfall.
Catch huge fish in sea fishing.
Fly in a hot air balloon.
Teach your child how to cook cabbage soup.
Swim across the river.
Attend a classical music concert.
Spend a week in the countryside.
Get a million scarlet roses as a gift.
Your list may be similar to this one, or it may be completely different. The main thing is that he was. And even if some of your desires seem absolutely unrealizable. Thoughts, as you know, materialize. Moreover, you simply do not have enough time for some dreams.
Most likely, you just think so. Yes, and any person has something to strive for, even if it seems to him that he has already achieved everything in this life. And remember — «never say never». Life is much shorter than we think. You should at least try to get everything or almost everything from it. And then on long winter evenings you will have something to tell your grandchildren.
You can teach them to enjoy every day. You will probably even write a book of memoirs that will be sold in millions of copies. You may even receive a large fee.
It will be enough for you to fulfill a dream that is not yet on the list, but it will definitely appear as items are deleted from the list created today. The faster this happens, the more you will have time. So, go ahead — towards the stars or where have you long wanted to?